Overview of the Pathogenesis and Treatment of SARS-CoV-2 for Clinicians: A Comprehensive Literature Review.Cureus. 2020 Sep 10; 12(9):e10357.C
In December 2019, numerous cases of "pneumonia of unknown origin" were presenting throughout Wuhan, China. The pathogen was described to be a novel coronavirus and was subsequently classified as SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) due to similarities in its pathogenesis and conserved replicase sequence with SARS-CoV-1 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1). Containment measures were initiated; however, the virus began to spread rapidly to countries around the world, and on March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a worldwide pandemic. Since the WHO's declaration, the scientific community has produced an abundance of information about this virus. In this report, we provide a comprehensive review of original articles, clinical trials, and case series in order to produce a concise overview of the pathogenesis and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19 [coronavirus disease 2019]) for clinicians. This review includes data on the roles of the S protein, ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) receptor, and various human secretory proteases, such as transmembrane protease/serine subfamily member 2 and furin, in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2. In addition, a thorough review of treatment options including oxygenation/ventilation strategies, dexamethasone, remdesivir, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, immune-based therapies, and anticoagulation are included. Information on this topic is changing rapidly but the authors believe that this review serves as an accurate representation of the current state of knowledge on these topics.