Immunogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide vaccines in 18-month-old infants.Pediatrics. 1987 Sep; 80(3):351-4.Ped
Haemophilus influenzae vaccine containing polyribosyl ribitol phosphate (PRP) or PRP covalently linked to diphtheria toxoid (PRP-D) was given to 94 healthy infants 17 to 22 months of age at the same time, but not at the same site, as a diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis booster. Systemic reactions were similar in the two vaccine groups and resembled those expected with the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis injection alone. Six (13%) and seven (14%) of the PRP and PRP-D recipients, respectively, had minor local reactions to the Haemophilus vaccine. Among the 77 children who were not already naturally immune (ie, anti-PRP antibody concentration of less than or equal to 0.15 micrograms of protein per milliliter) before vaccination, PRP-D was significantly more effective than PRP in inducing protective levels of antibody. Only 15 (43%) of the 35 nonimmune PRP recipients achieved a concentration of greater than or equal to 0.15 microgram/mL and only seven (20%) reached a concentration greater than or equal to 1.0 micrograms/mL following vaccination. In contrast, 34 (81%) of the 42 nonimmune recipients of PRP-D had a concentration of greater than or equal to 0.15 microgram/mL following vaccine and 32 (62%) had a concentration of greater than or equal to 1.0 micrograms/mL (P less than or equal to .001). These results suggest that more than one-half of nonimmune 18-month-old infants will not respond to PRP with protective levels of antibody. In light of the current data, recommendation for revaccination at 24 months of age for those immunized at any younger age is appropriate.