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Survival and Estimation of Direct Medical Costs of Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 10 13; 17(20)IJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

Assess the survival of hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients across age groups, sex, use of mechanical ventilators (MVs), nationality, and intensive care unit (ICU) admission in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

METHODS

Data were retrieved from the Saudi Ministry of Health (MoH) between 1 March and 29 May 2020. Kaplan-Meier (KM) analyses and multiple Cox proportional-hazards regression were conducted to assess the survival of hospitalized COVID-19 patients from hospital admission to discharge (censored) or death. Micro-costing was used to estimate the direct medical costs associated with hospitalization per patient.

RESULTS

The number of included patients with complete status (discharge or death) was 1422. The overall 14-day survival was 0.699 (95%CI: 0.652-0.741). Older adults (>70 years) (HR = 5.00, 95%CI = 2.83-8.91), patients on MVs (5.39, 3.83-7.64), non-Saudi patients (1.37, 1.01-1.89), and ICU admission (2.09, 1.49-2.93) were associated with a high risk of mortality. The mean cost per patient (in SAR) for those admitted to the general Medical Ward (GMW) and ICU was 42,704.49 ± 29,811.25 and 79,418.30 ± 55,647.69, respectively.

CONCLUSION

The high hospitalization costs for COVID-19 patients represents a significant public health challenge. Efficient allocation of healthcare resources cannot be emphasized enough.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Emergency Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Global Center for Mass Gatherings Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2454, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia. Pharmacoeconomics Research Unit, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2454, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2454, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia. Pharmacoeconomics Research Unit, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2454, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2454, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia. Department of Pediatrics, King Saud University Medical City, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.Department of Accident and Trauma, Prince Sultan Bin Abdulaziz College for Emergency Medical Services, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.Global Center for Mass Gatherings Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33066327

Citation

Khan, Anas A., et al. "Survival and Estimation of Direct Medical Costs of Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 17, no. 20, 2020.
Khan AA, AlRuthia Y, Balkhi B, et al. Survival and Estimation of Direct Medical Costs of Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(20).
Khan, A. A., AlRuthia, Y., Balkhi, B., Alghadeer, S. M., Temsah, M. H., Althunayyan, S. M., & Alsofayan, Y. M. (2020). Survival and Estimation of Direct Medical Costs of Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(20). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207458
Khan AA, et al. Survival and Estimation of Direct Medical Costs of Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 10 13;17(20) PubMed PMID: 33066327.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Survival and Estimation of Direct Medical Costs of Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia AU - Khan,Anas A, AU - AlRuthia,Yazed, AU - Balkhi,Bander, AU - Alghadeer,Sultan M, AU - Temsah,Mohamad-Hani, AU - Althunayyan,Saqer M, AU - Alsofayan,Yousef M, Y1 - 2020/10/13/ PY - 2020/09/02/received PY - 2020/10/10/revised PY - 2020/10/12/accepted PY - 2020/10/17/entrez PY - 2020/10/18/pubmed PY - 2020/10/23/medline KW - COVID-19 KW - Saudi Arabia KW - health care costs KW - hospitalization KW - mortality JF - International journal of environmental research and public health JO - Int J Environ Res Public Health VL - 17 IS - 20 N2 - OBJECTIVES: Assess the survival of hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients across age groups, sex, use of mechanical ventilators (MVs), nationality, and intensive care unit (ICU) admission in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Data were retrieved from the Saudi Ministry of Health (MoH) between 1 March and 29 May 2020. Kaplan-Meier (KM) analyses and multiple Cox proportional-hazards regression were conducted to assess the survival of hospitalized COVID-19 patients from hospital admission to discharge (censored) or death. Micro-costing was used to estimate the direct medical costs associated with hospitalization per patient. RESULTS: The number of included patients with complete status (discharge or death) was 1422. The overall 14-day survival was 0.699 (95%CI: 0.652-0.741). Older adults (>70 years) (HR = 5.00, 95%CI = 2.83-8.91), patients on MVs (5.39, 3.83-7.64), non-Saudi patients (1.37, 1.01-1.89), and ICU admission (2.09, 1.49-2.93) were associated with a high risk of mortality. The mean cost per patient (in SAR) for those admitted to the general Medical Ward (GMW) and ICU was 42,704.49 ± 29,811.25 and 79,418.30 ± 55,647.69, respectively. CONCLUSION: The high hospitalization costs for COVID-19 patients represents a significant public health challenge. Efficient allocation of healthcare resources cannot be emphasized enough. SN - 1660-4601 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33066327/Survival_and_Estimation_of_Direct_Medical_Costs_of_Hospitalized_COVID_19_Patients_in_the_Kingdom_of_Saudi_Arabia__Short_Title:_COVID_19_Survival_and_Cost_in_Saudi_Arabia__ L2 - https://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=ijerph17207458 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -