A Holistic View of Berberine Inhibiting Intestinal Carcinogenesis in Conventional Mice Based on Microbiome-Metabolomics Analysis.Front Immunol. 2020; 11:588079.FI
Berberine (BBR) has been reported that it has effects on inhibiting colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of BBR on CRC also remains largely unknown. Herein, we investigated the therapeutic effects of BBR on CRC from the perspective of gut microbiota and metabolic alterations, which can provide a holistic view to understand the effects of BBR on CRC. First, azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) mouse was used as CRC animal model, then the degree of colorectal carcinogenesis in AOM/DSS mice with or without BBR administration was measured. The composition and abundance of gut microbiota was investigated by using 16S rRNA. Meanwhile, feces samples were analyzed with 1H NMR spectroscopy to investigate the metabolic alterations. As a result, BBR significantly reduced intestinal tumor development with lower macroscopic polyps and ki-67 expression of intestinal tissue, and better colonic morphology in mice. Moreover, BBR altered the composition of gut microbiota in AOM/DSS mice obviously, which were characterized by a decrease of Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia significantly at the phylum level. At the genus level, it was able to suppress pathogenic species, such as f_Erysipelotrichaceae, Alistipes, and elevate some short-chain fatty acids (SCFA)-producing bacteria, including Alloprevotella, Flavonifractor, and Oscillibacter. Metabolic data further revealed that BBR induced metabolic changes in feces focus on regulating glycometabolism, SCFA metabolism and amino acid metabolism, which also provides evidence for alteration of the microbiota because these feces metabolites are the products of interactions between the host and the microbial community. This study showed that BBR induced alterations in microbiota and metabolic in AOM/DSS mice, which might providing new insight into the inhibition effects of BBR on CRC.