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Time Course and Sex Effects of α-Linolenic Acid-Rich and DHA-Rich Supplements on Human Plasma Oxylipins: A Randomized Double-Blind Crossover Trial.
J Nutr. 2021 03 11; 151(3):513-522.JN

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Differences in health effects of dietary α-linolenic acid (ALA) and DHA are mediated at least in part by differences in their effects on oxylipins.

OBJECTIVES

Time course and sex differences of plasma oxylipins in response to ALA- compared with DHA-rich supplements were examined.

METHODS

Healthy men and women, aged 19-34 y and BMI 18-28 kg/m2, were provided with capsules containing ∼4 g/d of ALA or DHA in a randomized double-blind crossover study with >6-wk wash-in and wash-out phases. Plasma PUFA and oxylipin (primary outcome) concentrations at days 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 of supplementation were analyzed by GC and HPLC-MS/MS, respectively. Sex differences, supplementation and time effects, and days to plateau were analyzed.

RESULTS

ALA supplementation doubled ALA concentrations, but had no effects on ALA oxylipins after 28 d, whereas DHA supplementation tripled both DHA and its oxylipins. Increases in DHA oxylipins were detected as early as day 1, and a plateau was reached by days 5-7 for 11 of 12 individual DHA oxylipins and for total DHA oxylipins. Nine individual DHA oxylipins reached a plateau in females with DHA supplementation, compared with only 4 in males. A similar time course and sex difference pattern occurred with EPA and its oxylipins with DHA supplementation. DHA compared with ALA supplementation also resulted in higher concentrations of 4 individual arachidonic acids, 1 linoleic acid, and 1 dihomo-γ-linolenic acid oxylipin, despite not increasing the concentrations of these fatty acids, further demonstrating that oxylipins do not always reflect their precursor PUFA.

CONCLUSIONS

DHA compared with a similar dose of ALA has greater effects on both n-3 and n-6 oxylipins in young, healthy adults, with differences in response to DHA supplementation occurring earlier and being greater in females. These findings can help explain differences in dietary effects of ALA and DHA.This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02317588.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Food and Human Nutritional Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Canadian Centre for Agri-Food Research in Health and Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.Department of Food and Human Nutritional Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Canadian Centre for Agri-Food Research in Health and Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.Department of Food and Human Nutritional Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Canadian Centre for Agri-Food Research in Health and Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.Department of Food and Human Nutritional Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Canadian Centre for Agri-Food Research in Health and Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33097936

Citation

Gabbs, Melissa, et al. "Time Course and Sex Effects of α-Linolenic Acid-Rich and DHA-Rich Supplements On Human Plasma Oxylipins: a Randomized Double-Blind Crossover Trial." The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 151, no. 3, 2021, pp. 513-522.
Gabbs M, Zahradka P, Taylor CG, et al. Time Course and Sex Effects of α-Linolenic Acid-Rich and DHA-Rich Supplements on Human Plasma Oxylipins: A Randomized Double-Blind Crossover Trial. J Nutr. 2021;151(3):513-522.
Gabbs, M., Zahradka, P., Taylor, C. G., & Aukema, H. M. (2021). Time Course and Sex Effects of α-Linolenic Acid-Rich and DHA-Rich Supplements on Human Plasma Oxylipins: A Randomized Double-Blind Crossover Trial. The Journal of Nutrition, 151(3), 513-522. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxaa294
Gabbs M, et al. Time Course and Sex Effects of α-Linolenic Acid-Rich and DHA-Rich Supplements On Human Plasma Oxylipins: a Randomized Double-Blind Crossover Trial. J Nutr. 2021 03 11;151(3):513-522. PubMed PMID: 33097936.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Time Course and Sex Effects of α-Linolenic Acid-Rich and DHA-Rich Supplements on Human Plasma Oxylipins: A Randomized Double-Blind Crossover Trial. AU - Gabbs,Melissa, AU - Zahradka,Peter, AU - Taylor,Carla G, AU - Aukema,Harold M, PY - 2020/03/02/received PY - 2020/06/01/revised PY - 2020/09/09/accepted PY - 2021/10/23/pmc-release PY - 2020/10/25/pubmed PY - 2021/5/7/medline PY - 2020/10/24/entrez KW - DHA KW - human KW - oxylipin KW - plasma KW - sex KW - time course KW - α-linolenic acid SP - 513 EP - 522 JF - The Journal of nutrition JO - J Nutr VL - 151 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Differences in health effects of dietary α-linolenic acid (ALA) and DHA are mediated at least in part by differences in their effects on oxylipins. OBJECTIVES: Time course and sex differences of plasma oxylipins in response to ALA- compared with DHA-rich supplements were examined. METHODS: Healthy men and women, aged 19-34 y and BMI 18-28 kg/m2, were provided with capsules containing ∼4 g/d of ALA or DHA in a randomized double-blind crossover study with >6-wk wash-in and wash-out phases. Plasma PUFA and oxylipin (primary outcome) concentrations at days 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 of supplementation were analyzed by GC and HPLC-MS/MS, respectively. Sex differences, supplementation and time effects, and days to plateau were analyzed. RESULTS: ALA supplementation doubled ALA concentrations, but had no effects on ALA oxylipins after 28 d, whereas DHA supplementation tripled both DHA and its oxylipins. Increases in DHA oxylipins were detected as early as day 1, and a plateau was reached by days 5-7 for 11 of 12 individual DHA oxylipins and for total DHA oxylipins. Nine individual DHA oxylipins reached a plateau in females with DHA supplementation, compared with only 4 in males. A similar time course and sex difference pattern occurred with EPA and its oxylipins with DHA supplementation. DHA compared with ALA supplementation also resulted in higher concentrations of 4 individual arachidonic acids, 1 linoleic acid, and 1 dihomo-γ-linolenic acid oxylipin, despite not increasing the concentrations of these fatty acids, further demonstrating that oxylipins do not always reflect their precursor PUFA. CONCLUSIONS: DHA compared with a similar dose of ALA has greater effects on both n-3 and n-6 oxylipins in young, healthy adults, with differences in response to DHA supplementation occurring earlier and being greater in females. These findings can help explain differences in dietary effects of ALA and DHA.This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02317588. SN - 1541-6100 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33097936/Time_Course_and_Sex_Effects_of_α_Linolenic_Acid_Rich_and_DHA_Rich_Supplements_on_Human_Plasma_Oxylipins:_A_Randomized_Double_Blind_Crossover_Trial_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jn/nxaa294 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -