Characterization and Chondroprotective Effects of Extracellular Vesicles From Plasma- and Serum-Based Autologous Blood-Derived Products for Osteoarthritis Therapy.Front Bioeng Biotechnol. 2020; 8:584050.FB
Autologous blood products gain increasing interest in the field of regenerative medicine as well as in orthopedics, aesthetic surgery, and cosmetics. Currently, citrate-anticoagulated platelet-rich plasma (CPRP) preparations are often applied in osteoarthritis (OA), but more physiological and cell-free alternatives such as hyperacute serum (hypACT) are under development. Besides growth factors, blood products also bring along extracellular vesicles (EVs) packed with signal molecules, which open up a new level of complexity at evaluating the functional spectrum of blood products. Large proportions of EVs originated from platelets in CPRP and hypACT, whereas very low erythrocyte and monocyte-derived EVs were detected via flow cytometry. EV treatment of chondrocytes enhanced the expression of anabolic markers type II collagen, SRY-box transcription factor 9 (SOX9), and aggrecan compared to full blood products, but also the catabolic marker and tissue remodeling factor matrix metalloproteinase 3, whereas hypACT EVs prevented type I collagen expression. CPRP blood product increased SOX9 protein expression, in contrast to hypACT blood product. However, hypACT EVs induced SOX9 protein expression while preventing interleukin-6 secretion. The results indicate that blood EVs are sufficient to induce chondrogenic gene expression changes in OA chondrocytes, while preventing proinflammatory cytokine release compared to full blood product. This highlights the potential of autologous blood-derived EVs as regulators of cartilage extracellular matrix metabolism and inflammation, as well as candidates for new cell-free therapeutic approaches for OA.