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The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health: early quarantine-related anxiety and its correlates among Jordanians.
East Mediterr Health J. 2020 Oct 13; 26(10):1165-1172.EM

Abstract

Background

Jordan implemented a nationwide lockdown and recommended self-quarantine in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Such measures are expected to have consequences on mental health.

Aims

In this study, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of quarantine-related anxiety and its socioeconomic correlates.

Methods

An online questionnaire was utilized to collect information about quarantine-related anxiety and related factors from a non-representative sample of Jordanian population in March 2020. The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) was used to ascertain the level of stress. Using STATA 16, multivariable ordinal logistic regression was done to estimate beta-coefficient (β) and corresponding 95% CI of the anxiety level.

Results

Overall, 5274 participants returned the survey. The prevalence of mild, moderate, and severe anxiety was 21.5%, 10.9%, and 6%, respectively. Female gender (β= 0.47, 95% CI: 0.34 to 0.59) and more members of the household (β= 0.04, 95% CI: 0.00 to 0.07) were correlated with a higher degree of anxiety, while older age (β= -0.27, 95% CI: -0.33 to -0.20), having larger social network (β= -0.17, 95% CI -0.22 to -0.13), social support (β= -0.28, 95% CI: -0.32 to -0.23), and higher income (>2000 Jordanian Dinars vs reference, β= -0.52, 95% CI: -0.71 to -0.33) were correlated with lower BAI scores.

Conclusion

Our findings showed that approximately four out of every ten participants experienced quarantine-related anxiety. Younger participants, women, and people with poor social support were more likely to experience quarantine-related anxiety. These findings highlight the importance of targeting these groups to mitigate the consequence of home quarantine on public health.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, School of Medicine, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.Division of Pediatrics Surgery, Department of General Surgery, Jordan University Hospital, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.School of Medicine, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.School of Medicine, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.School of Medicine, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.Division of Urology, Department of Special Surgery, Jordan University Hospital, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan. Department of Urology, the Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33103743

Citation

Massad, Islam, et al. "The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic On Mental Health: Early Quarantine-related Anxiety and Its Correlates Among Jordanians." Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal = La Revue De Sante De La Mediterranee Orientale = al-Majallah Al-sihhiyah Li-sharq Al-mutawassit, vol. 26, no. 10, 2020, pp. 1165-1172.
Massad I, Al-Taher R, Massad F, et al. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health: early quarantine-related anxiety and its correlates among Jordanians. East Mediterr Health J. 2020;26(10):1165-1172.
Massad, I., Al-Taher, R., Massad, F., Al-Sabbagh, M. Q., Haddad, M., & Abufaraj, M. (2020). The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health: early quarantine-related anxiety and its correlates among Jordanians. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal = La Revue De Sante De La Mediterranee Orientale = al-Majallah Al-sihhiyah Li-sharq Al-mutawassit, 26(10), 1165-1172. https://doi.org/10.26719/emhj.20.115
Massad I, et al. The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic On Mental Health: Early Quarantine-related Anxiety and Its Correlates Among Jordanians. East Mediterr Health J. 2020 Oct 13;26(10):1165-1172. PubMed PMID: 33103743.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health: early quarantine-related anxiety and its correlates among Jordanians. AU - Massad,Islam, AU - Al-Taher,Raed, AU - Massad,Faysal, AU - Al-Sabbagh,Mohammed Qussay, AU - Haddad,Murad, AU - Abufaraj,Mohammad, Y1 - 2020/10/13/ PY - 2020/07/04/received PY - 2020/08/18/accepted PY - 2020/10/26/entrez PY - 2020/10/27/pubmed PY - 2020/11/18/medline KW - COVID-19 KW - anxiety KW - mental health KW - quarantine KW - stress SP - 1165 EP - 1172 JF - Eastern Mediterranean health journal = La revue de sante de la Mediterranee orientale = al-Majallah al-sihhiyah li-sharq al-mutawassit JO - East Mediterr Health J VL - 26 IS - 10 N2 - Background: Jordan implemented a nationwide lockdown and recommended self-quarantine in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Such measures are expected to have consequences on mental health. Aims: In this study, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of quarantine-related anxiety and its socioeconomic correlates. Methods: An online questionnaire was utilized to collect information about quarantine-related anxiety and related factors from a non-representative sample of Jordanian population in March 2020. The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) was used to ascertain the level of stress. Using STATA 16, multivariable ordinal logistic regression was done to estimate beta-coefficient (β) and corresponding 95% CI of the anxiety level. Results: Overall, 5274 participants returned the survey. The prevalence of mild, moderate, and severe anxiety was 21.5%, 10.9%, and 6%, respectively. Female gender (β= 0.47, 95% CI: 0.34 to 0.59) and more members of the household (β= 0.04, 95% CI: 0.00 to 0.07) were correlated with a higher degree of anxiety, while older age (β= -0.27, 95% CI: -0.33 to -0.20), having larger social network (β= -0.17, 95% CI -0.22 to -0.13), social support (β= -0.28, 95% CI: -0.32 to -0.23), and higher income (>2000 Jordanian Dinars vs reference, β= -0.52, 95% CI: -0.71 to -0.33) were correlated with lower BAI scores. Conclusion: Our findings showed that approximately four out of every ten participants experienced quarantine-related anxiety. Younger participants, women, and people with poor social support were more likely to experience quarantine-related anxiety. These findings highlight the importance of targeting these groups to mitigate the consequence of home quarantine on public health. SN - 1687-1634 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33103743/The_impact_of_the_COVID_19_pandemic_on_mental_health:_early_quarantine_related_anxiety_and_its_correlates_among_Jordanians_ L2 - http://www.diseaseinfosearch.org/result/7698 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -