[Evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 PCR Positive Cases in the Pediatric Emergency Department].Mikrobiyol Bul. 2020 Oct; 54(4):629-637.MB
In December 2019, a previously unknown type of coronavirus was detected in China and named as "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)". The World Health Organization has named the SARS-CoV-2 related as coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and declared it as a pandemic. There is a limited data about the COVID-19 disease for the pediatric patients. In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory and radiologic findings, treatment and clinical outcomes of patients admitted to the pediatric emergency department with the suspicion of COVID-19. Between March 11 and June 16, 2020, patients aged between 1 month-18 years admitted to the pediatric emergency department and who have an indication for sampling for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method with the suspicion of COVID-19 according to the current guidelines published by the Ministry of Health were included in the study. The demographic characteristics, symptoms, durations and the history of contact with the suspected/definite COVID-19 cases were questioned in the patients with positive results. Physical examination, laboratory and imaging data of the patients were recorded. According to clinical severity, patients were divided into five groups. Treatment methods, ward/intensive care unit admission, length of stay at hospital, and prognosis were recorded. Of the 237 patients included in the study, 45 (18.9%) of the samples were positive and 192 (81.1%) were negative. There was a history of contact with COVID-19 positive case in 38 (85.6%) of COVID-19 PCR positive patients. The mean time for onset of symptoms after contact was 3.5 ± 1.7 days. Twenty-one of the patients (46.6%) were asymptomatic and the most common symptom was fever (34.1%) and cough (27.3%). Of the patients whose laboratory tests were requested, lymphopenia wasdetected in 50% and 52.3% of procalcitonin, 23.5% of C-reactive protein and 64.7% of D-dimer values were found to be high. Chest radiography was obtained from 45.4% of the patients; 90.0% were evaluated as normal, bronchovascular change, pleural effusion and consolidation were detected in one of each (5.0%) patient. Thorax computed tomography (CT) was obtained from 4 (9.0%) patients. One patient had normal CT findings, two patients had consolidation, one patient had peripheral ground-glass appearance and one patient had pleural effusion. Antibiotics were started in 38.6% of the patients and the most commonly used antibiotic was azithromycin (34.1%). Oseltamivir was started in one (2.3%) patient, and 10 (24.7%) patients were treated with hydroxychloroquine. There were no serious and critical cases according to the clinical severity. Pediatric patients constitute a small part of COVID-19 individuals in the community, and a significant part of them are asymptomatic, and patients who are symptomatic present with a mild clinic. In our study, most of the patients had a history of contact with COVID-19 positive cases, therefore, it should be questioned when evaluating a pediatric patient. There were no specific findings for COVID-19 positive patients in terms of laboratory and radiology.