Seroprevalence of Antibodies Against Paracoccidioides Spp. in Captive Dolphins from Three Aquaria in Japan.Mycopathologia. 2020 Dec; 185(6):1013-1020.M
The skin disease paracoccidioidomycosis ceti occurs in several dolphin species globally. Infection by the unculturable fungi Paracoccidioides brasilensis or other Paracoccidioides spp. results in chronic cutaneous and granulomatous lesions. In this study we used immunohistochemistry to investigate the seroprevalence of antibodies to Paracoccidioides spp. in captive dolphins from three aquaria in Japan. We had previously reported that there were serological cross-reactions for Paracoccidioides spp. with related species in the order Onygenales. We hypothesized that the degree of serological cross-reactions for Paracoccidioides spp. might be lower in areas, such as Japan, where the fungal diseases coccidiodomycosis and paracoccidiodomycosis are not endemic. Sera from 41 apparently healthy dolphins, including 20 Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (BD: Tursiops truncatus), 6 Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (IPBD: Tursiops aduncus), 2 F1 generation of a cross between BD and IPBD (F1), 3 Pacific white-sided dolphins (PWD: Lagenorhynchus obliquidens), 2 pantropical spotted dolphins (PSD: Stenella attenuata), 6 false killer whales (FKW: Pseudorca crassidens), and 2 rough-toothed dolphins (RTD: Steno bredanensis) were investigated. Sera from three dolphins with paracoccidioidomycosis ceti were used as a positive control. The yeast-form cells of Paracoccidioides spp. in the cutaneous tissue sample derived from the first Japanese paracoccidioidomycosis ceti case were used as the antigen for the immunohistochemistry. Of the 41 dolphins tested, 61.0% had antibodies against Paracoccidioides spp. This indicates that dolphins of several species in Japanese aquaria have likely been exposed to the pathogen Paracoccidioides spp.