Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Progress and Pitfalls in the Quest for Effective SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccines.
Front Immunol. 2020; 11:579250.FI

Abstract

There are currently around 200 SARS-CoV-2 candidate vaccines in preclinical and clinical trials throughout the world. The various candidates employ a range of vaccine strategies including some novel approaches. Currently, the goal is to prove that they are safe and immunogenic in humans (phase 1/2 studies) with several now advancing into phase 2 and 3 trials to demonstrate efficacy and gather comprehensive data on safety. It is highly likely that many vaccines will be shown to stimulate antibody and T cell responses in healthy individuals and have an acceptable safety profile, but the key will be to confirm that they protect against COVID-19. There is much hope that SARS-CoV-2 vaccines will be rolled out to the entire world to contain the pandemic and avert its most damaging impacts. However, in all likelihood this will initially require a targeted approach toward key vulnerable groups. Collaborative efforts are underway to ensure manufacturing can occur at the unprecedented scale and speed required to immunize billions of people. Ensuring deployment also occurs equitably across the globe will be critical. Careful evaluation and ongoing surveillance for safety will be required to address theoretical concerns regarding immune enhancement seen in previous contexts. Herein, we review the current knowledge about the immune response to this novel virus as it pertains to the design of effective and safe SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and the range of novel and established approaches to vaccine development being taken. We provide details of some of the frontrunner vaccines and discuss potential issues including adverse effects, scale-up and delivery.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Infectious Diseases, Launceston General Hospital, Launceston, TAS, Australia. Faculty of Health Sciences and School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Launceston, TAS, Australia. School of Health and Biomedical Science, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Department of Immunology and Pathology, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.Department of Paediatric Infectious Diseases, Starship Children's Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand. Department of Paediatrics: Child and Youth Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital Immunisation Service, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Infectious Diseases Unit, Alfred Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.Department of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia. National Centre for Immunisation Research & Surveillance (NCIRS), Sydney, NSW, Australia. Department of Infectious Diseases, Nepean Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia.Department of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia. National Centre for Immunisation Research & Surveillance (NCIRS), Sydney, NSW, Australia.Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital Immunisation Service, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.Department of Infectious Diseases, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.Infection Management Prevention Services, Queensland Children's Hospital, South Brisbane, QLD, Australia. University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research (UQCCR), University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33123165

Citation

Flanagan, Katie L., et al. "Progress and Pitfalls in the Quest for Effective SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccines." Frontiers in Immunology, vol. 11, 2020, p. 579250.
Flanagan KL, Best E, Crawford NW, et al. Progress and Pitfalls in the Quest for Effective SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccines. Front Immunol. 2020;11:579250.
Flanagan, K. L., Best, E., Crawford, N. W., Giles, M., Koirala, A., Macartney, K., Russell, F., Teh, B. W., & Wen, S. C. (2020). Progress and Pitfalls in the Quest for Effective SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccines. Frontiers in Immunology, 11, 579250. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.579250
Flanagan KL, et al. Progress and Pitfalls in the Quest for Effective SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccines. Front Immunol. 2020;11:579250. PubMed PMID: 33123165.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Progress and Pitfalls in the Quest for Effective SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccines. AU - Flanagan,Katie L, AU - Best,Emma, AU - Crawford,Nigel W, AU - Giles,Michelle, AU - Koirala,Archana, AU - Macartney,Kristine, AU - Russell,Fiona, AU - Teh,Benjamin W, AU - Wen,Sophie Ch, Y1 - 2020/10/02/ PY - 2020/07/02/received PY - 2020/08/31/accepted PY - 2020/10/30/entrez PY - 2020/10/31/pubmed PY - 2020/11/11/medline KW - Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) KW - adverse events of special interest (AESI) KW - antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) KW - bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) KW - cell mediated immunity KW - innate immunity KW - neutralizing antibodies KW - spike protein SP - 579250 EP - 579250 JF - Frontiers in immunology JO - Front Immunol VL - 11 N2 - There are currently around 200 SARS-CoV-2 candidate vaccines in preclinical and clinical trials throughout the world. The various candidates employ a range of vaccine strategies including some novel approaches. Currently, the goal is to prove that they are safe and immunogenic in humans (phase 1/2 studies) with several now advancing into phase 2 and 3 trials to demonstrate efficacy and gather comprehensive data on safety. It is highly likely that many vaccines will be shown to stimulate antibody and T cell responses in healthy individuals and have an acceptable safety profile, but the key will be to confirm that they protect against COVID-19. There is much hope that SARS-CoV-2 vaccines will be rolled out to the entire world to contain the pandemic and avert its most damaging impacts. However, in all likelihood this will initially require a targeted approach toward key vulnerable groups. Collaborative efforts are underway to ensure manufacturing can occur at the unprecedented scale and speed required to immunize billions of people. Ensuring deployment also occurs equitably across the globe will be critical. Careful evaluation and ongoing surveillance for safety will be required to address theoretical concerns regarding immune enhancement seen in previous contexts. Herein, we review the current knowledge about the immune response to this novel virus as it pertains to the design of effective and safe SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and the range of novel and established approaches to vaccine development being taken. We provide details of some of the frontrunner vaccines and discuss potential issues including adverse effects, scale-up and delivery. SN - 1664-3224 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33123165/Progress_and_Pitfalls_in_the_Quest_for_Effective_SARS_CoV_2__COVID_19__Vaccines_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.579250 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -