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A Semi-quantitative method for the detection of fentanyl using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) with a handheld Raman instrument.
J Forensic Sci. 2021 Mar; 66(2):505-519.JF

Abstract

A handheld, spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) system was successfully used to obtain Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) spectra of fentanyl under simulated field conditions. A series of aqueous fentanyl solutions were prepared with commercially available gold nanoparticle solution, at concentrations ranging from 0.003 to 1697 μM. These SERS spectra were then used to generate two concentration calibration models (via a plot of peak area (1026 cm-1) versus concentration, and quantitative spectral decomposition using partial least squares (PLS1)). For both models, the relationship followed Langmuir adsorption and became non-linear at concentrations above ~0.2 μM, with a limit of detection (LOD) of approximately 3 nM. The same technique was successfully used to measure fentanyl in the presence of two common "cutting agents," heroin and glucose, at 1% and 2% fentanyl proportions (w/w). Fentanyl detection was successfully achieved, but mixture interference from the cutting agents prevented a calibration model being generated. Four fentanyl analogues were also investigated-butyrylfentanyl, furanylfentanyl, acetylfentanyl, and ocfentanyl. A concentration calibration model for each species was successfully generated, but differentiation from fentanyl proved more challenging, although several potential diagnostic peaks were identified. These results identified a pathway forward in using handheld equipment for the reliable detection of ultra-low concentrations of fentanyl and fentanyl analogues via SERS, even when mixed with diluents. However, quantitative detection is negatively impacted in the presence of heroin and glucose. This also provides a starting point for a SERS-based spectral library of fentanyl analogues, in combination with a range of different diluents.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Queensland Fire and Emergency Services, Research and Scientific Branch, Brisbane, Australia.Queensland Fire and Emergency Services, Research and Scientific Branch, Brisbane, Australia.Chemistry Department, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Australia.Chemistry Department, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Australia.Field Detection, Molecular Spectroscopy, Agilent Technologies UK Ltd, Oxford, UK.Field Detection, Molecular Spectroscopy, Agilent Technologies UK Ltd, Oxford, UK.Field Detection, Molecular Spectroscopy, Agilent Technologies UK Ltd, Oxford, UK.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33136303

Citation

Smith, Matthew, et al. "A Semi-quantitative Method for the Detection of Fentanyl Using Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) With a Handheld Raman Instrument." Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 66, no. 2, 2021, pp. 505-519.
Smith M, Logan M, Bazley M, et al. A Semi-quantitative method for the detection of fentanyl using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) with a handheld Raman instrument. J Forensic Sci. 2021;66(2):505-519.
Smith, M., Logan, M., Bazley, M., Blanchfield, J., Stokes, R., Blanco, A., & McGee, R. (2021). A Semi-quantitative method for the detection of fentanyl using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) with a handheld Raman instrument. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 66(2), 505-519. https://doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.14610
Smith M, et al. A Semi-quantitative Method for the Detection of Fentanyl Using Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) With a Handheld Raman Instrument. J Forensic Sci. 2021;66(2):505-519. PubMed PMID: 33136303.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A Semi-quantitative method for the detection of fentanyl using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) with a handheld Raman instrument. AU - Smith,Matthew, AU - Logan,Mike, AU - Bazley,Mikaela, AU - Blanchfield,Joanne, AU - Stokes,Robert, AU - Blanco,Ana, AU - McGee,Rachel, Y1 - 2020/11/02/ PY - 2020/07/26/received PY - 2020/09/06/revised PY - 2020/10/07/accepted PY - 2020/11/3/pubmed PY - 2020/11/3/medline PY - 2020/11/2/entrez KW - Raman KW - SERS KW - fentanyl KW - hazardous chemical detection KW - illicit drug KW - opioid KW - spatially offset Raman spectroscopy KW - surfaced-enhanced Raman spectroscopy SP - 505 EP - 519 JF - Journal of forensic sciences JO - J Forensic Sci VL - 66 IS - 2 N2 - A handheld, spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) system was successfully used to obtain Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) spectra of fentanyl under simulated field conditions. A series of aqueous fentanyl solutions were prepared with commercially available gold nanoparticle solution, at concentrations ranging from 0.003 to 1697 μM. These SERS spectra were then used to generate two concentration calibration models (via a plot of peak area (1026 cm-1) versus concentration, and quantitative spectral decomposition using partial least squares (PLS1)). For both models, the relationship followed Langmuir adsorption and became non-linear at concentrations above ~0.2 μM, with a limit of detection (LOD) of approximately 3 nM. The same technique was successfully used to measure fentanyl in the presence of two common "cutting agents," heroin and glucose, at 1% and 2% fentanyl proportions (w/w). Fentanyl detection was successfully achieved, but mixture interference from the cutting agents prevented a calibration model being generated. Four fentanyl analogues were also investigated-butyrylfentanyl, furanylfentanyl, acetylfentanyl, and ocfentanyl. A concentration calibration model for each species was successfully generated, but differentiation from fentanyl proved more challenging, although several potential diagnostic peaks were identified. These results identified a pathway forward in using handheld equipment for the reliable detection of ultra-low concentrations of fentanyl and fentanyl analogues via SERS, even when mixed with diluents. However, quantitative detection is negatively impacted in the presence of heroin and glucose. This also provides a starting point for a SERS-based spectral library of fentanyl analogues, in combination with a range of different diluents. SN - 1556-4029 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33136303/A_Semi_quantitative_method_for_the_detection_of_fentanyl_using_surface_enhanced_Raman_scattering__SERS__with_a_handheld_Raman_instrument_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.14610 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -