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The endocranial anatomy of Buriolestes schultzi (Dinosauria: Saurischia) and the early evolution of brain tissues in sauropodomorph dinosaurs.
J Anat. 2021 04; 238(4):809-827.JA

Abstract

Our knowledge on the anatomy of the first dinosaurs (Late Triassic, 235-205 Ma) has drastically increased in the last years, mainly due to several new findings of exceptionally well-preserved specimens. Nevertheless, some structures such as the neurocranium and its associated structures (brain, labyrinth, cranial nerves, and vasculature) remain poorly known, especially due to the lack of specimens preserving a complete and articulated neurocranium. This study helps to fill this gap by investigating the endocranial cavity of one of the earliest sauropodomorphs, Buriolestes schultzi, from the Upper Triassic (Carnian-c. 233 Ma) of Brazil. The endocranial anatomy of this animal sheds light on the ancestral condition of the brain of sauropodomorphs, revealing an elongated olfactory tract combined to a relatively small pituitary gland and well-developed flocculus of the cerebellum. These traits change drastically across the evolutionary history of sauropodomorphs, reaching the opposite morphology in Jurassic times. Furthermore, we present here the first calculations of the Reptile Encephalization Quotient (REQ) for a Triassic dinosaur. The REQ of B. schultzi is lower than that of Jurassic theropods, but higher than that of later sauropodomorphs. The combination of cerebral, dental, and postcranial data suggest that B. schultzi was an active small predator, able to track moving prey.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Centro de Apoio à Pesquisa Paleontológica da Quarta Colônia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, São João do Polêsine, Brazil.Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biodiversidade Animal, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil.Centro de Apoio à Pesquisa Paleontológica da Quarta Colônia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, São João do Polêsine, Brazil. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biodiversidade Animal, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil.Laboratório de Evolução e Biologia Integrativa, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.Centro de Apoio à Pesquisa Paleontológica da Quarta Colônia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, São João do Polêsine, Brazil. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biodiversidade Animal, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil. Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Coordenação de Ciências da Terra e Ecologia, Belém, Brazil.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33137855

Citation

Müller, Rodrigo T., et al. "The Endocranial Anatomy of Buriolestes Schultzi (Dinosauria: Saurischia) and the Early Evolution of Brain Tissues in Sauropodomorph Dinosaurs." Journal of Anatomy, vol. 238, no. 4, 2021, pp. 809-827.
Müller RT, Ferreira JD, Pretto FA, et al. The endocranial anatomy of Buriolestes schultzi (Dinosauria: Saurischia) and the early evolution of brain tissues in sauropodomorph dinosaurs. J Anat. 2021;238(4):809-827.
Müller, R. T., Ferreira, J. D., Pretto, F. A., Bronzati, M., & Kerber, L. (2021). The endocranial anatomy of Buriolestes schultzi (Dinosauria: Saurischia) and the early evolution of brain tissues in sauropodomorph dinosaurs. Journal of Anatomy, 238(4), 809-827. https://doi.org/10.1111/joa.13350
Müller RT, et al. The Endocranial Anatomy of Buriolestes Schultzi (Dinosauria: Saurischia) and the Early Evolution of Brain Tissues in Sauropodomorph Dinosaurs. J Anat. 2021;238(4):809-827. PubMed PMID: 33137855.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The endocranial anatomy of Buriolestes schultzi (Dinosauria: Saurischia) and the early evolution of brain tissues in sauropodomorph dinosaurs. AU - Müller,Rodrigo T, AU - Ferreira,José D, AU - Pretto,Flávio A, AU - Bronzati,Mario, AU - Kerber,Leonardo, Y1 - 2020/11/02/ PY - 2020/03/18/received PY - 2020/10/05/revised PY - 2020/10/09/accepted PY - 2023/04/01/pmc-release PY - 2020/11/3/pubmed PY - 2021/8/10/medline PY - 2020/11/2/entrez KW - Sauropodomorpha KW - Triassic KW - brain KW - computed tomography KW - endocast KW - evolution SP - 809 EP - 827 JF - Journal of anatomy JO - J Anat VL - 238 IS - 4 N2 - Our knowledge on the anatomy of the first dinosaurs (Late Triassic, 235-205 Ma) has drastically increased in the last years, mainly due to several new findings of exceptionally well-preserved specimens. Nevertheless, some structures such as the neurocranium and its associated structures (brain, labyrinth, cranial nerves, and vasculature) remain poorly known, especially due to the lack of specimens preserving a complete and articulated neurocranium. This study helps to fill this gap by investigating the endocranial cavity of one of the earliest sauropodomorphs, Buriolestes schultzi, from the Upper Triassic (Carnian-c. 233 Ma) of Brazil. The endocranial anatomy of this animal sheds light on the ancestral condition of the brain of sauropodomorphs, revealing an elongated olfactory tract combined to a relatively small pituitary gland and well-developed flocculus of the cerebellum. These traits change drastically across the evolutionary history of sauropodomorphs, reaching the opposite morphology in Jurassic times. Furthermore, we present here the first calculations of the Reptile Encephalization Quotient (REQ) for a Triassic dinosaur. The REQ of B. schultzi is lower than that of Jurassic theropods, but higher than that of later sauropodomorphs. The combination of cerebral, dental, and postcranial data suggest that B. schultzi was an active small predator, able to track moving prey. SN - 1469-7580 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33137855/The_endocranial_anatomy_of_Buriolestes_schultzi__Dinosauria:_Saurischia__and_the_early_evolution_of_brain_tissues_in_sauropodomorph_dinosaurs_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -