Clinical characteristics and risk factors for severity of COVID-19 outside Wuhan: a double-center retrospective cohort study of 213 cases in Hunan, China.Ther Adv Respir Dis. 2020 Jan-Dec; 14:1753466620963035.TA
To investigate clinical characteristics and identify risk factors for severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia outside of Wuhan, China.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
We included 213 patients with confirmed COVID-19 who had been discharged or died by 15 March 2020. We retrospectively collected epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, computed tomography imaging and outcome data. Clinical characteristics were described and relative risk factors were compared.
Most clinical characteristics of this study were similar to those from studies in Wuhan, but there were lower mortality rate and milder severity. The median time from onset of symptoms to confirmation and hospitalization was 4 and 5 days, respectively. The median virus clearance and shedding times were 10 and 15 days, respectively. When the severe/critical group was compared with the mild/moderate group, significant risk factors included: older age; dyspnea; hypertension; poor appetite; fatigue; higher white cell count, neutrophil count, prothrombin time, creatine kinase, creatine kinase-MB, D-dimer, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and C-reactive protein; and lower lymphocyte count and albumin (p < 0.05). In the intensive care unit (ICU) group compared with the non-ICU group, risk factors included: older age; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); dyspnea; poor appetite; higher white cell count, D-dimer, ALT, AST and LDH; and lower lymphocyte count and albumin (p < 0.05). Independent risk factors associated with the severe/critical group were dyspnea [odds ratio (OR) = 19.48], ALT (OR = 6.02) and albumin (OR = 3.36). Independent risk factors associated with the ICU group were dyspnea (OR = 8.88), COPD (OR = 31.80), D-dimer (OR = 8.37), ALT (OR = 28.76) and LDH (OR = 9.95) (p < 0.05).
The severity of COVID-19 outside Wuhan, China was milder than that within Wuhan. The clinical infective period was long, and the longest virus shedding time was 35 days. The most important risk factors were dyspnea, COPD, D-dimer, ALT, LDH and albumin.The reviews of this paper are available via the supplemental material section.