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Improved air quality and associated mortalities in India under COVID-19 lockdown.
Environ Pollut. 2021 Jan 01; 268(Pt A):115691.EP

Abstract

India enforced stringent lockdown measures on March 24, 2020 to mitigate the spread of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronovirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here, we examined the impact of lockdown on the air quality index (AQI) [including ambient particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and ammonia (NH3)] and tropospheric NO2 and O3 densities through Sentinel-5 satellite data approximately 1 d post-lockdown and one month pre-lockdown and post-lockdown. Our findings revealed a marked reduction in the ambient AQI (estimated mean reduction of 17.75% and 20.70%, respectively), tropospheric NO2 density, and land surface temperature (LST) during post-lockdown compared with the pre-lockdown period or corresponding months in 2019, except for a few sites with substantial coal mining and active power plants. We observed a modest increase in the O3 density post-lockdown, thereby indicating improved tropospheric air quality. As a favorable outcome of the COVID-19 lockdown, road accident-related mortalities declined by 72-folds. Cities with poor air quality correlate with higher COVID-19 cases and deaths (r = 0.504 and r = 0.590 for NO2; r = 0.744 and r = 0.435 for AQI). Conversely, low mortality was reported in cities with better air quality. These results show a correlation between the COVID-19 vulnerable regions and AQI hotspots, thereby suggesting that air pollution may exacerbate clinical manifestations of the disease. However, a prolonged lockdown may nullify the beneficial environmental outcomes by adversely affecting socioeconomic and health aspects.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Geography, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India. Electronic address: hnaqvi1@jmi.ac.in.Department of Biochemistry, Amity University, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.Environmental Systems Research Institute, R & D Center, New Delhi, India.Department of Geography, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India.ZiMetrics Technologies Pvt. Ltd., Pune, India.Department of Periodontics, College of Dentistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33139097

Citation

Naqvi, Hasan Raja, et al. "Improved Air Quality and Associated Mortalities in India Under COVID-19 Lockdown." Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), vol. 268, no. Pt A, 2021, p. 115691.
Naqvi HR, Datta M, Mutreja G, et al. Improved air quality and associated mortalities in India under COVID-19 lockdown. Environ Pollut. 2021;268(Pt A):115691.
Naqvi, H. R., Datta, M., Mutreja, G., Siddiqui, M. A., Naqvi, D. F., & Naqvi, A. R. (2021). Improved air quality and associated mortalities in India under COVID-19 lockdown. Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 268(Pt A), 115691. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115691
Naqvi HR, et al. Improved Air Quality and Associated Mortalities in India Under COVID-19 Lockdown. Environ Pollut. 2021 Jan 1;268(Pt A):115691. PubMed PMID: 33139097.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Improved air quality and associated mortalities in India under COVID-19 lockdown. AU - Naqvi,Hasan Raja, AU - Datta,Manali, AU - Mutreja,Guneet, AU - Siddiqui,Masood Ahsan, AU - Naqvi,Daraksha Fatima, AU - Naqvi,Afsar Raza, Y1 - 2020/10/27/ PY - 2020/06/08/received PY - 2020/09/15/revised PY - 2020/09/16/accepted PY - 2020/11/4/pubmed PY - 2020/12/19/medline PY - 2020/11/3/entrez KW - COVID-19 KW - Ground AQI KW - India KW - Pandemic lockdown KW - Tropospheric pollutants SP - 115691 EP - 115691 JF - Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) JO - Environ Pollut VL - 268 IS - Pt A N2 - India enforced stringent lockdown measures on March 24, 2020 to mitigate the spread of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronovirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here, we examined the impact of lockdown on the air quality index (AQI) [including ambient particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and ammonia (NH3)] and tropospheric NO2 and O3 densities through Sentinel-5 satellite data approximately 1 d post-lockdown and one month pre-lockdown and post-lockdown. Our findings revealed a marked reduction in the ambient AQI (estimated mean reduction of 17.75% and 20.70%, respectively), tropospheric NO2 density, and land surface temperature (LST) during post-lockdown compared with the pre-lockdown period or corresponding months in 2019, except for a few sites with substantial coal mining and active power plants. We observed a modest increase in the O3 density post-lockdown, thereby indicating improved tropospheric air quality. As a favorable outcome of the COVID-19 lockdown, road accident-related mortalities declined by 72-folds. Cities with poor air quality correlate with higher COVID-19 cases and deaths (r = 0.504 and r = 0.590 for NO2; r = 0.744 and r = 0.435 for AQI). Conversely, low mortality was reported in cities with better air quality. These results show a correlation between the COVID-19 vulnerable regions and AQI hotspots, thereby suggesting that air pollution may exacerbate clinical manifestations of the disease. However, a prolonged lockdown may nullify the beneficial environmental outcomes by adversely affecting socioeconomic and health aspects. SN - 1873-6424 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33139097/Improved_air_quality_and_associated_mortalities_in_India_under_COVID_19_lockdown_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0269-7491(20)36380-6 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -