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Evidence Regarding Vitamin D and Risk of COVID-19 and Its Severity.
Nutrients. 2020 Oct 31; 12(11)N

Abstract

Vitamin D deficiency co-exists in patients with COVID-19. At this time, dark skin color, increased age, the presence of pre-existing illnesses and vitamin D deficiency are features of severe COVID disease. Of these, only vitamin D deficiency is modifiable. Through its interactions with a multitude of cells, vitamin D may have several ways to reduce the risk of acute respiratory tract infections and COVID-19: reducing the survival and replication of viruses, reducing risk of inflammatory cytokine production, increasing angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 concentrations, and maintaining endothelial integrity. Fourteen observational studies offer evidence that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are inversely correlated with the incidence or severity of COVID-19. The evidence to date generally satisfies Hill's criteria for causality in a biological system, namely, strength of association, consistency, temporality, biological gradient, plausibility (e.g., mechanisms), and coherence, although experimental verification is lacking. Thus, the evidence seems strong enough that people and physicians can use or recommend vitamin D supplements to prevent or treat COVID-19 in light of their safety and wide therapeutic window. In view of public health policy, however, results of large-scale vitamin D randomized controlled trials are required and are currently in progress.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Owner, Natural Health Partners, LLC, 125 SW 3rd Place, Cape Coral, FL 33991, USA.Sunlight, Nutrition, and Health Research Center, P.O. Box 641603, San Francisco, CA 94164-1603, USA.Department of Pediatrics, Shawn Jenkins Children's Hospital, Medical University of South Carolina, 10 McClennan Banks Drive, MSC 915, Charleston, SC 29425, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33142828

Citation

Mercola, Joseph, et al. "Evidence Regarding Vitamin D and Risk of COVID-19 and Its Severity." Nutrients, vol. 12, no. 11, 2020.
Mercola J, Grant WB, Wagner CL. Evidence Regarding Vitamin D and Risk of COVID-19 and Its Severity. Nutrients. 2020;12(11).
Mercola, J., Grant, W. B., & Wagner, C. L. (2020). Evidence Regarding Vitamin D and Risk of COVID-19 and Its Severity. Nutrients, 12(11). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113361
Mercola J, Grant WB, Wagner CL. Evidence Regarding Vitamin D and Risk of COVID-19 and Its Severity. Nutrients. 2020 Oct 31;12(11) PubMed PMID: 33142828.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Evidence Regarding Vitamin D and Risk of COVID-19 and Its Severity. AU - Mercola,Joseph, AU - Grant,William B, AU - Wagner,Carol L, Y1 - 2020/10/31/ PY - 2020/10/4/received PY - 2020/10/26/revised PY - 2020/10/29/accepted PY - 2020/11/4/entrez PY - 2020/11/5/pubmed PY - 2020/11/12/medline KW - 25-hydroxyvitamin D KW - COVID-19 KW - IL-6 KW - MMP-9 KW - SARS-CoV-2 KW - cathelicidin KW - endothelial dysfunction KW - immune system KW - inflammation KW - vitamin D JF - Nutrients JO - Nutrients VL - 12 IS - 11 N2 - Vitamin D deficiency co-exists in patients with COVID-19. At this time, dark skin color, increased age, the presence of pre-existing illnesses and vitamin D deficiency are features of severe COVID disease. Of these, only vitamin D deficiency is modifiable. Through its interactions with a multitude of cells, vitamin D may have several ways to reduce the risk of acute respiratory tract infections and COVID-19: reducing the survival and replication of viruses, reducing risk of inflammatory cytokine production, increasing angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 concentrations, and maintaining endothelial integrity. Fourteen observational studies offer evidence that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are inversely correlated with the incidence or severity of COVID-19. The evidence to date generally satisfies Hill's criteria for causality in a biological system, namely, strength of association, consistency, temporality, biological gradient, plausibility (e.g., mechanisms), and coherence, although experimental verification is lacking. Thus, the evidence seems strong enough that people and physicians can use or recommend vitamin D supplements to prevent or treat COVID-19 in light of their safety and wide therapeutic window. In view of public health policy, however, results of large-scale vitamin D randomized controlled trials are required and are currently in progress. SN - 2072-6643 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33142828/Evidence_Regarding_Vitamin_D_and_Risk_of_COVID_19_and_Its_Severity_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -