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Modeling the stability of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on skin, currency, and clothing.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020 11; 14(11):e0008831.PN

Abstract

A new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in the winter of 2019 in Wuhan, China, and rapidly spread around the world. The extent and efficiency of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is far greater than previous coronaviruses that emerged in the 21st Century. Here, we modeled stability of SARS-CoV-2 on skin, paper currency, and clothing to determine if these surfaces may factor in the fomite transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2. Skin, currency, and clothing samples were exposed to SARS-CoV-2 under laboratory conditions and incubated at three different temperatures (4°C± 2°C, 22°C± 2°C, and 37°C ± 2°C). We evaluated stability at 0 hours (h), 4 h, 8 h, 24 h, 72 h, 96 h, 7 days, and 14 days post-exposure. SARS-CoV-2 was stable on skin through the duration of the experiment at 4°C (14 days). Virus remained stable on skin for at least 96 h at 22°C and for at least 8h at 37°C. There were minimal differences between the tested currency samples. The virus remained stable on the $1 U.S.A. Bank Note for at least 96 h at 4°C while we did not detect viable virus on the $20 U.S.A. Bank Note samples beyond 72 h. The virus remained stable on both Bank Notes for at least 8 h at 22°C and 4 h at 37°C. Clothing samples were similar in stability to the currency. Viable virus remained for at least 96 h at 4°C and at least 4 h at 22°C. We did not detect viable virus on clothing samples at 37°C after initial exposure. This study confirms the inverse relationship between virus stability and temperature. Furthermore, virus stability on skin demonstrates the need for continued hand hygiene practices to minimize fomite transmission both in the general population as well as in workplaces where close contact is common.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Biosafety Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Ft. Detrick Maryland, United States of America.General Dynamics Health Solutions in support of USAMRIID, Ft. Detrick, Maryland, United States of America.Oak Ridge Institute of Science and Education, Ft. Detrick, Maryland, United States of America.Core Laboratory Services Directorate, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Ft. Detrick Maryland, United States of America.Core Laboratory Services Directorate, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Ft. Detrick Maryland, United States of America.ICON Global Public Health Solutions, Ft. Detrick, Maryland, United States of America.Core Laboratory Services Directorate, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Ft. Detrick Maryland, United States of America.Diagnostic Systems Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Ft. Detrick Maryland, United States of America.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33166294

Citation

Harbourt, David E., et al. "Modeling the Stability of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) On Skin, Currency, and Clothing." PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 14, no. 11, 2020, pp. e0008831.
Harbourt DE, Haddow AD, Piper AE, et al. Modeling the stability of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on skin, currency, and clothing. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020;14(11):e0008831.
Harbourt, D. E., Haddow, A. D., Piper, A. E., Bloomfield, H., Kearney, B. J., Fetterer, D., Gibson, K., & Minogue, T. (2020). Modeling the stability of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on skin, currency, and clothing. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 14(11), e0008831. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008831
Harbourt DE, et al. Modeling the Stability of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) On Skin, Currency, and Clothing. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020;14(11):e0008831. PubMed PMID: 33166294.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Modeling the stability of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on skin, currency, and clothing. AU - Harbourt,David E, AU - Haddow,Andrew D, AU - Piper,Ashley E, AU - Bloomfield,Holly, AU - Kearney,Brian J, AU - Fetterer,David, AU - Gibson,Kathleen, AU - Minogue,Timothy, Y1 - 2020/11/09/ PY - 2020/06/08/received PY - 2020/09/30/accepted PY - 2020/11/19/revised PY - 2020/11/10/pubmed PY - 2020/11/28/medline PY - 2020/11/9/entrez SP - e0008831 EP - e0008831 JF - PLoS neglected tropical diseases JO - PLoS Negl Trop Dis VL - 14 IS - 11 N2 - A new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in the winter of 2019 in Wuhan, China, and rapidly spread around the world. The extent and efficiency of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is far greater than previous coronaviruses that emerged in the 21st Century. Here, we modeled stability of SARS-CoV-2 on skin, paper currency, and clothing to determine if these surfaces may factor in the fomite transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2. Skin, currency, and clothing samples were exposed to SARS-CoV-2 under laboratory conditions and incubated at three different temperatures (4°C± 2°C, 22°C± 2°C, and 37°C ± 2°C). We evaluated stability at 0 hours (h), 4 h, 8 h, 24 h, 72 h, 96 h, 7 days, and 14 days post-exposure. SARS-CoV-2 was stable on skin through the duration of the experiment at 4°C (14 days). Virus remained stable on skin for at least 96 h at 22°C and for at least 8h at 37°C. There were minimal differences between the tested currency samples. The virus remained stable on the $1 U.S.A. Bank Note for at least 96 h at 4°C while we did not detect viable virus on the $20 U.S.A. Bank Note samples beyond 72 h. The virus remained stable on both Bank Notes for at least 8 h at 22°C and 4 h at 37°C. Clothing samples were similar in stability to the currency. Viable virus remained for at least 96 h at 4°C and at least 4 h at 22°C. We did not detect viable virus on clothing samples at 37°C after initial exposure. This study confirms the inverse relationship between virus stability and temperature. Furthermore, virus stability on skin demonstrates the need for continued hand hygiene practices to minimize fomite transmission both in the general population as well as in workplaces where close contact is common. SN - 1935-2735 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33166294/Modeling_the_stability_of_severe_acute_respiratory_syndrome_coronavirus_2__SARS_CoV_2__on_skin_currency_and_clothing_ L2 - https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008831 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -