Association of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations With All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality Among Individuals With Diabetes.Diabetes Care. 2021 02; 44(2):350-357.DC
The evidence regarding vitamin D status and mortality among people with diabetes is scarce. This study aimed to examine the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with all-cause and cause-specific mortality among adults with diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
This study included 6,329 adults with diabetes from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and NHANES 2001-2014. Death outcomes were ascertained by linkage to National Death Index records through 31 December 2015. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CIs for mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer.
The weighted mean (95% CI) level of serum 25(OH)D was 57.7 (56.6, 58.8) nmol/L, and 46.6% had deficient vitamin D (<50 nmol/L [20 ng/mL]). Higher serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly associated with lower levels of glucose, insulin, HOMA of insulin resistance, HbA1c, blood lipids, and C-reactive protein at baseline (all P trend < 0.05). During 55,126 person-years of follow-up, 2,056 deaths were documented, including 605 CVD deaths and 309 cancer deaths. After multivariate adjustment, higher serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly and linearly associated with lower all-cause and CVD mortality: there was a 31% reduced risk of all-cause mortality and a 38% reduced risk of CVD mortality per one-unit increment in natural log-transformed 25(OH)D (both P < 0.001). Compared with participants with 25(OH)D <25 nmol/L, the multivariate-adjusted HRs and 95% CI for participants with 25(OH)D >75 nmol/L were 0.59 (0.43, 0.83) for all-cause mortality (P trend = 0.003), 0.50 (0.29, 0.86) for CVD mortality (P trend = 0.02), and 0.49 (0.23, 1.04) for cancer mortality (P trend = 0.12).
Higher serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly associated with lower all-cause and CVD mortality. These findings suggest that maintaining adequate vitamin D status may lower mortality risk in individuals with diabetes.