Ellagic Acid Prevents Dopamine Neuron Degeneration from Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation in MPTP Model of Parkinson's Disease.Biomolecules. 2020 11 06; 10(11)B
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases and is characterized by progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the substantia nigra pars compacta area. In the present study, treatment of EA for 1 week at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight prior to MPTP (25 mg/kg body weight) was carried out. MPTP administration caused oxidative stress, as evidenced by decreased activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, and the depletion of reduced glutathione with a concomitant rise in the lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde. It also significantly increased the pro-inflammatory cytokines and elevated the inflammatory mediators like cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the striatum. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a loss of dopamine neurons in the SNc area and a decrease in dopamine transporter in the striatum following MPTP administration. However, treatment with EA prior to MPTP injection significantly rescued the dopaminergic neurons and dopamine transporter. EA treatment further restored antioxidant enzymes, prevented the depletion of glutathione and inhibited lipid peroxidation, in addition to the attenuation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. EA also reduced the levels of COX-2 and iNOS. The findings of the present study demonstrate that EA protects against MPTP-induced PD and the observed neuroprotective effects can be attributed to its potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.