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High prevalence of pre-existing serological cross-reactivity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in sub-Saharan Africa.
Int J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan; 102:577-583.IJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Significant morbidity and mortality have occurred in the USA, Europe, and Asia due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), whereas the numbers of infections and deaths in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have remained comparatively low. It has been hypothesized that exposure of the population in SSA to other coronaviruses prior to the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in some degree of cross-protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection and pathogenesis. We evaluated this hypothesis by comparing SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive antibodies in pre-pandemic plasma samples collected from SSA and the USA.

METHOD

Pre-COVID-19 pandemic plasma samples from SSA and the USA were collected and tested by immunofluorescence assay against the spike and nucleocapsid proteins of all known human coronaviruses (HCoVs).

RESULTS

The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 serological cross-reactivity was significantly higher in samples from SSA compared with the USA. Most of these cross-reactive samples cross-recognized the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein and the spike proteins of other HCoVs. Nucleocapsid proteins from HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E were detected in most samples, thereby implicating prior exposure to these two HCoVs as the likely source of cross-reactive antibodies against SARS-CoV-2.

CONCLUSION

The low incidences of SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease in SSA appear to be correlated with the pre-pandemic serological cross-recognition of HCoVs, which are substantially more prevalent in SSA than the USA.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Nebraska Center for Virology, Lincoln, NE, USA; School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, USA.Nebraska Center for Virology, Lincoln, NE, USA; School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, USA; Ocean Road Cancer Institute, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.Nebraska Center for Virology, Lincoln, NE, USA; School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, USA.Nebraska Center for Virology, Lincoln, NE, USA; School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, USA.Ocean Road Cancer Institute, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.Ocean Road Cancer Institute, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.Dermatology and Venereology Section, University Teaching Hospitals, University of Zambia School of Medicine, Lusaka, Zambia.Department of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Zambia School of Medicine, Lusaka, Zambia.Nebraska Center for Virology, Lincoln, NE, USA; Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, USA.Nebraska Center for Virology, Lincoln, NE, USA; School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, USA; Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, USA. Electronic address: cwood1@unl.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33176202

Citation

Tso, For Yue, et al. "High Prevalence of Pre-existing Serological Cross-reactivity Against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in sub-Saharan Africa." International Journal of Infectious Diseases : IJID : Official Publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases, vol. 102, 2021, pp. 577-583.
Tso FY, Lidenge SJ, Peña PB, et al. High prevalence of pre-existing serological cross-reactivity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in sub-Saharan Africa. Int J Infect Dis. 2021;102:577-583.
Tso, F. Y., Lidenge, S. J., Peña, P. B., Clegg, A. A., Ngowi, J. R., Mwaiselage, J., Ngalamika, O., Julius, P., West, J. T., & Wood, C. (2021). High prevalence of pre-existing serological cross-reactivity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in sub-Saharan Africa. International Journal of Infectious Diseases : IJID : Official Publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases, 102, 577-583. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.10.104
Tso FY, et al. High Prevalence of Pre-existing Serological Cross-reactivity Against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in sub-Saharan Africa. Int J Infect Dis. 2021;102:577-583. PubMed PMID: 33176202.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - High prevalence of pre-existing serological cross-reactivity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in sub-Saharan Africa. AU - Tso,For Yue, AU - Lidenge,Salum J, AU - Peña,Phoebe B, AU - Clegg,Ashley A, AU - Ngowi,John R, AU - Mwaiselage,Julius, AU - Ngalamika,Owen, AU - Julius,Peter, AU - West,John T, AU - Wood,Charles, Y1 - 2020/11/08/ PY - 2020/10/01/received PY - 2020/10/27/revised PY - 2020/10/31/accepted PY - 2020/11/12/pubmed PY - 2021/1/20/medline PY - 2020/11/11/entrez KW - COVID-19 KW - Cross-reactivity KW - HCoV-229E KW - HCoV-NL63 KW - Human coronavirus KW - SARS-CoV-2 KW - Serology KW - Sub-Saharan Africa SP - 577 EP - 583 JF - International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases JO - Int J Infect Dis VL - 102 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Significant morbidity and mortality have occurred in the USA, Europe, and Asia due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), whereas the numbers of infections and deaths in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have remained comparatively low. It has been hypothesized that exposure of the population in SSA to other coronaviruses prior to the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in some degree of cross-protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection and pathogenesis. We evaluated this hypothesis by comparing SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive antibodies in pre-pandemic plasma samples collected from SSA and the USA. METHOD: Pre-COVID-19 pandemic plasma samples from SSA and the USA were collected and tested by immunofluorescence assay against the spike and nucleocapsid proteins of all known human coronaviruses (HCoVs). RESULTS: The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 serological cross-reactivity was significantly higher in samples from SSA compared with the USA. Most of these cross-reactive samples cross-recognized the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein and the spike proteins of other HCoVs. Nucleocapsid proteins from HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E were detected in most samples, thereby implicating prior exposure to these two HCoVs as the likely source of cross-reactive antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSION: The low incidences of SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease in SSA appear to be correlated with the pre-pandemic serological cross-recognition of HCoVs, which are substantially more prevalent in SSA than the USA. SN - 1878-3511 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33176202/High_prevalence_of_pre_existing_serological_cross_reactivity_against_severe_acute_respiratory_syndrome_coronavirus_2__SARS_CoV_2__in_sub_Saharan_Africa_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1201-9712(20)32310-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -