Population Growth and Development of the Khapra Beetle (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), on Different Sorghum Fractions.J Econ Entomol. 2021 02 09; 114(1):424-429.JE
A series of tests was performed to examine the development ability of Trogoderma granarium Everts on six different sorghum milling fractions: bran, shorts, coarse grits, fine grits, red dogs, and flour. In the first bioassay, 20 adults and 20 g of each fraction were placed in vials of 60 ml at 30°C and 60% relative humidity for a period of 65 d. In the second part of the experiment, a neonate larva (1-d old) was placed in vials with 1 g of each fraction and exposed at 25, 30, and 32°C until adult emergence. Significantly more live larvae were found in bran compared with flour and to the two grain controls (soft wheat and whole wheat flour), where most dead adults were recorded. The increase in temperature reduced both the time to adult emergence and larval mortality before the appearance of the first adult. Developmental times ranged between 25.5 and 37.5 d, and 23.2 and 29.0 d for 30 and 32°C, respectively. At 25°C, larvae in the milling fractions did not reach 100% adult emergence even after almost 3 mo. However, the first adult appeared in the shorts fraction at all temperatures tested. Our results show that all sorghum milling fractions support the development of T. granarium and that the optimal temperatures for growth and development are 30 and 32°C. These results also have important implications for phytosanitary regulations and international trade, given the quarantine restrictions on this insect.