Occurrence, health risks and soil-air exchange of phthalate acid esters: A case study in plastic film greenhouses of Chongqing, China.Chemosphere. 2021 Apr; 268:128821.C
The residue of phthalate acid esters (PAEs) in plastic film greenhouses had become a global concern environmental pollution problem. However, few studies have focused on the occurrence and fate of PAEs in the soil-air interface of the greenhouses. In this study, the occurrence, health risks, and soil-air exchange of PAEs from ten soil samples and four air samples of different greenhouses were investigated by a case study. The concentrations of total PAEs and individual PAEs congeners between two seasons were significantly different in the greenhouse soil and atmosphere. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (1.04 mg kg-1) and diisobutyl phthalate (0.16 mg kg-1) were the predominant PAE congeners of soil in spring and autumn, respectively. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate was the major PAE congeners in the greenhouse atmosphere both of spring (0.03 μg m-3) and autumn (1.32 μg m-3). Health risks assessment showed that the predominant exposure route for adults was dietary intake, and the total carcinogenic risk level of PAEs was acceptable. Besides, fugacity model analysis indicated that di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate tended to deposit from air to soil with mean deposition flux of 175.1 kg (h⋅km2)-1 in autumn and 11.9 kg (h⋅km2)-1 in spring. On the contrary, diethyl phthalate escaped from soil with mean volatilization flux of 0.005 kg (h⋅km2)-1 in autumn and 0.025 kg (h⋅km2)-1 in spring. Other PAE congeners have tried to establish an equilibrium status through recycling continuously between the soil and air, and the source-sink relationships depended on their concentrations and hydrophobicity. This study showed that the distribution and movement of PAEs in the soil-air interface might be principally caused by temperature and their chemical properties.