Isoflavones, anthocyanins, phenolic content, and antioxidant activities of black soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) as affected by seed weight.Sci Rep. 2020 11 17; 10(1):19960.SR
Seed weight is regulated by several genes which in turn could affect the metabolite contents, yield, and quality of soybean seeds. Due to these, seed weight is receiving much attention in soybean breeding. In this study, seeds of 24 black soybean varieties and a reference genotype were grown in Korea, and grouped as small (< 13 g), medium (13-24 g), and large (> 24 g) seeds based on their seed weight. The contents of six anthocyanins, twelve isoflavones, and total phenolic, and the antioxidant activities were determined, and the association of each with seed weight was analyzed. The total anthocyanin (TAC) and total isoflavone (TIC) contents were in the ranges of 189.461-2633.454 mg/100 g and 2.110-5.777 mg/g, respectively and were significantly different among the black soybean varieties. By comparison, the average TAC and TIC were the highest in large seeds than in small and medium seeds while the total phenolic content (TPC) was in the order of small seeds > large seeds > medium seeds. Besides, large seeds showed the maximum 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activity, whereas small seeds showed the maximum ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical (ABTS) scavenging activities. FRAP activity was positively associated with TIC and TAC, the former association being significant. On the other hand, ABTS and DPPH activities were positively correlated to TPC, the later association being significant. Overall, our findings demonstrated the influence of seed weight on anthocyanin, isoflavone, and phenolic contents and antioxidant activities in black soybeans. Besides, the dominant anthocyanins and isoflavones were the principal contributors to the variations observed in the black soybean varieties, and hence, these components could be selectively targeted to discriminate a large population of black soybean genetic resources.