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Beyond the supermarket: analyzing household shopping trip patterns that include food at home and away from home retailers.
BMC Public Health. 2020 Nov 19; 20(1):1747.BP

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Modifying a household's food environment by targeting a single retailer type, like supermarkets, has a limited impact on dietary outcomes. This may be because the food environment has a limited impact on shopping behaviors, or because households are not as reliant on supermarkets as we assume. However, our understanding of how households shop for food, especially when considering the use of both food at home (FAH) retailers, such as supermarkets, and away from home retailers (FAFH), such as restaurants, is limited. Thus, understanding how households shop for food is a necessary first step when developing programs to modify food purchasing behavior.

METHODS

K-means cluster analysis was used to identify weekly food shopping trip patterns based on the percentage of trips to FAH and FAFH retailers in the 2013 Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey (FoodAPS) dataset (n = 4665 households). Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between shopping trip patterns, household and food environment characteristics.

RESULTS

Three patterns emerged: primarily supermarket, primarily supercenter, or mix (i.e. no dominant retailer type, but high FAFH use). Households with incomes below 185% of the federal poverty line were evenly divided between patterns that rely primarily on FAH retailers, and the mix pattern. While nearly 70% of households with incomes above 185% of the federal poverty line are in the mix cluster. Supermarket and superstore availability significantly influenced the likelihood of belonging to those clusters respectively, while having a child, higher income, and attitudes towards healthy meal preparation time or taste significantly influenced the likelihood of belonging to the mix cluster.

CONCLUSION

Although lower-income households are more likely to rely primarily on FAH retailers, household's, regardless of income, that primarily utilize FAH retailers show a strong preference for either superstores or supermarkets suggesting a need for interventions to reach both retailer types. However, altering the food environment alone may not be sufficient to discourage use of FAFH retailers as households relying on FAFH retailers are significantly influenced by meal preparation time and healthy food taste.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Tennessee, 2621 Morgan Circle, Knoxville, TN, 27996, USA. jyeneral@utk.edu.Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Virginia, 200 Jeanette Lancaster Way, Charlottesville, VA, 22903, USA.Department of Epidemiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 984395 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, 68198, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33213423

Citation

Yenerall, Jackie, et al. "Beyond the Supermarket: Analyzing Household Shopping Trip Patterns That Include Food at Home and Away From Home Retailers." BMC Public Health, vol. 20, no. 1, 2020, p. 1747.
Yenerall J, You W, Hill J. Beyond the supermarket: analyzing household shopping trip patterns that include food at home and away from home retailers. BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1):1747.
Yenerall, J., You, W., & Hill, J. (2020). Beyond the supermarket: analyzing household shopping trip patterns that include food at home and away from home retailers. BMC Public Health, 20(1), 1747. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09882-0
Yenerall J, You W, Hill J. Beyond the Supermarket: Analyzing Household Shopping Trip Patterns That Include Food at Home and Away From Home Retailers. BMC Public Health. 2020 Nov 19;20(1):1747. PubMed PMID: 33213423.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Beyond the supermarket: analyzing household shopping trip patterns that include food at home and away from home retailers. AU - Yenerall,Jackie, AU - You,Wen, AU - Hill,Jennie, Y1 - 2020/11/19/ PY - 2020/08/21/received PY - 2020/11/12/accepted PY - 2020/11/20/entrez PY - 2020/11/21/pubmed PY - 2021/5/15/medline KW - Food environment KW - Food shopping behavior KW - Shopping trip patterns SP - 1747 EP - 1747 JF - BMC public health JO - BMC Public Health VL - 20 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Modifying a household's food environment by targeting a single retailer type, like supermarkets, has a limited impact on dietary outcomes. This may be because the food environment has a limited impact on shopping behaviors, or because households are not as reliant on supermarkets as we assume. However, our understanding of how households shop for food, especially when considering the use of both food at home (FAH) retailers, such as supermarkets, and away from home retailers (FAFH), such as restaurants, is limited. Thus, understanding how households shop for food is a necessary first step when developing programs to modify food purchasing behavior. METHODS: K-means cluster analysis was used to identify weekly food shopping trip patterns based on the percentage of trips to FAH and FAFH retailers in the 2013 Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey (FoodAPS) dataset (n = 4665 households). Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between shopping trip patterns, household and food environment characteristics. RESULTS: Three patterns emerged: primarily supermarket, primarily supercenter, or mix (i.e. no dominant retailer type, but high FAFH use). Households with incomes below 185% of the federal poverty line were evenly divided between patterns that rely primarily on FAH retailers, and the mix pattern. While nearly 70% of households with incomes above 185% of the federal poverty line are in the mix cluster. Supermarket and superstore availability significantly influenced the likelihood of belonging to those clusters respectively, while having a child, higher income, and attitudes towards healthy meal preparation time or taste significantly influenced the likelihood of belonging to the mix cluster. CONCLUSION: Although lower-income households are more likely to rely primarily on FAH retailers, household's, regardless of income, that primarily utilize FAH retailers show a strong preference for either superstores or supermarkets suggesting a need for interventions to reach both retailer types. However, altering the food environment alone may not be sufficient to discourage use of FAFH retailers as households relying on FAFH retailers are significantly influenced by meal preparation time and healthy food taste. SN - 1471-2458 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33213423/Beyond_the_supermarket:_analyzing_household_shopping_trip_patterns_that_include_food_at_home_and_away_from_home_retailers_ L2 - https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-020-09882-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -