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Changes in nut consumption influence long-term weight change in US men and women.
BMJ Nutr Prev Health. 2019; 2(2):90-99.BN

Abstract

Background

Nut consumption has increased in the US but little evidence exists on the association between changes in nut consumption and weight change. We aimed to evaluate the association between changes in total consumption of nuts and intakes of different nuts (including peanuts) and long-term weight change, in three independent cohort studies.

Methods and findings

Data collected in three prospective, longitudinal cohorts among health professionals in the US were analysed. We included 27 521 men (Health Professionals Follow-up Study, 1986 to 2010), 61 680 women (Nurses' Health Study, 1986 to 2010), and 55 684 younger women (Nurses' Health Study II, 1991 to 2011) who were free of chronic disease at baseline in the analyses. We investigated the association between changes in nut consumption over 4-year intervals and concurrent weight change over 20-24 years of follow-up using multivariate linear models with an unstructured correlation matrix to account for within-individual repeated measures. 21 322 individuals attained a body mass index classification of obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) at the end of follow-up.Average weight gain across the three cohorts was 0.32 kg each year. Increases in nut consumption, per 0.5 servings/day (14 g), was significantly associated with less weight gain per 4-year interval (p<0.01 for all): -0.19 kg (95% CI -0.21 to -0.17) for total consumption of nuts, -0.37 kg (95% CI -0.45 to -0.30) for walnuts, -0.36 kg (95% CI -0.40 to -0.31) for other tree nuts, and -0.15 kg (95% CI -0.19 to -0.11) for peanuts.Increasing intakes of nuts, walnuts, and other tree nuts by 0.5 servings/day was associated with a lower risk of obesity. The multivariable adjusted RR for total nuts, walnuts, and other tree nuts was 0.97 (95% CI 0.96 to 0.99, p=0.0036), 0.85 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.89, p=0.0002), and 0.89 (95% CI 0.87 to 0.91, p<0.0001), respectively. Increasing nut consumption was also associated with a lower risk of gaining ≥2 kg or ≥5 kg (RR 0.89-0.98, p<0.01 for all).In substitution analyses, substituting 0.5 servings/day of nuts for red meat, processed meat, French fries, desserts, or potato, chips (crisps) was associated with less weight gain (p<0.05 for all).Our cohorts were largely composed of Caucasian health professionals with relatively higher socioeconomic status; thus the results may not be generalisable to other populations.

Conclusion

Increasing daily consumption of nuts is associated with less long-term weight gain and a lower risk of obesity in adults. Replacing 0.5 servings/day of less healthful foods with nuts may be a simple strategy to help prevent gradual long-term weight gain and obesity.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Nutrition, Harvard University T H Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.Department of Nutrition, Harvard University T H Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.Department of Nutrition, Harvard University T H Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.Department of Nutrition, Harvard University T H Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Department of Epidemiology, Harvard University T H Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.Department of Nutrition, Harvard University T H Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.Department of Nutrition, Harvard University T H Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.Department of Nutrition, Harvard University T H Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33235963

Citation

Liu, Xiaoran, et al. "Changes in Nut Consumption Influence Long-term Weight Change in US Men and Women." BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, vol. 2, no. 2, 2019, pp. 90-99.
Liu X, Li Y, Guasch-Ferré M, et al. Changes in nut consumption influence long-term weight change in US men and women. BMJ Nutr Prev Health. 2019;2(2):90-99.
Liu, X., Li, Y., Guasch-Ferré, M., Willett, W. C., Drouin-Chartier, J. P., Bhupathiraju, S. N., & Tobias, D. K. (2019). Changes in nut consumption influence long-term weight change in US men and women. BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, 2(2), 90-99. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjnph-2019-000034
Liu X, et al. Changes in Nut Consumption Influence Long-term Weight Change in US Men and Women. BMJ Nutr Prev Health. 2019;2(2):90-99. PubMed PMID: 33235963.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Changes in nut consumption influence long-term weight change in US men and women. AU - Liu,Xiaoran, AU - Li,Yanping, AU - Guasch-Ferré,Marta, AU - Willett,Walter C, AU - Drouin-Chartier,Jean-Philippe, AU - Bhupathiraju,Shilpa N, AU - Tobias,Deirdre K, Y1 - 2019/09/23/ PY - 2019/04/17/received PY - 2019/05/28/revised PY - 2019/06/12/accepted PY - 2020/11/25/entrez PY - 2019/9/23/pubmed PY - 2019/9/23/medline KW - dietary patterns KW - nutrition assessment KW - weight management SP - 90 EP - 99 JF - BMJ nutrition, prevention & health JO - BMJ Nutr Prev Health VL - 2 IS - 2 N2 - Background: Nut consumption has increased in the US but little evidence exists on the association between changes in nut consumption and weight change. We aimed to evaluate the association between changes in total consumption of nuts and intakes of different nuts (including peanuts) and long-term weight change, in three independent cohort studies. Methods and findings: Data collected in three prospective, longitudinal cohorts among health professionals in the US were analysed. We included 27 521 men (Health Professionals Follow-up Study, 1986 to 2010), 61 680 women (Nurses' Health Study, 1986 to 2010), and 55 684 younger women (Nurses' Health Study II, 1991 to 2011) who were free of chronic disease at baseline in the analyses. We investigated the association between changes in nut consumption over 4-year intervals and concurrent weight change over 20-24 years of follow-up using multivariate linear models with an unstructured correlation matrix to account for within-individual repeated measures. 21 322 individuals attained a body mass index classification of obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) at the end of follow-up.Average weight gain across the three cohorts was 0.32 kg each year. Increases in nut consumption, per 0.5 servings/day (14 g), was significantly associated with less weight gain per 4-year interval (p<0.01 for all): -0.19 kg (95% CI -0.21 to -0.17) for total consumption of nuts, -0.37 kg (95% CI -0.45 to -0.30) for walnuts, -0.36 kg (95% CI -0.40 to -0.31) for other tree nuts, and -0.15 kg (95% CI -0.19 to -0.11) for peanuts.Increasing intakes of nuts, walnuts, and other tree nuts by 0.5 servings/day was associated with a lower risk of obesity. The multivariable adjusted RR for total nuts, walnuts, and other tree nuts was 0.97 (95% CI 0.96 to 0.99, p=0.0036), 0.85 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.89, p=0.0002), and 0.89 (95% CI 0.87 to 0.91, p<0.0001), respectively. Increasing nut consumption was also associated with a lower risk of gaining ≥2 kg or ≥5 kg (RR 0.89-0.98, p<0.01 for all).In substitution analyses, substituting 0.5 servings/day of nuts for red meat, processed meat, French fries, desserts, or potato, chips (crisps) was associated with less weight gain (p<0.05 for all).Our cohorts were largely composed of Caucasian health professionals with relatively higher socioeconomic status; thus the results may not be generalisable to other populations. Conclusion: Increasing daily consumption of nuts is associated with less long-term weight gain and a lower risk of obesity in adults. Replacing 0.5 servings/day of less healthful foods with nuts may be a simple strategy to help prevent gradual long-term weight gain and obesity. SN - 2516-5542 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33235963/Changes_in_nut_consumption_influence_long_term_weight_change_in_US_men_and_women_ L2 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/33235963/ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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