Genome-wide assessment and development of molecular diagnostic methods for imidacloprid-resistance in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera; Delphacidae).Pest Manag Sci. 2021 Apr; 77(4):1786-1795.PM
The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), is one of the most notorious pests of rice throughout Asia. The brown planthopper has developed high resistance to imidacloprid, a member of neonicotinoid insecticides. Several genes and mutations conferring imidacloprid resistance in N. lugens, especially in eastern and southeastern Asia populations, have been reported. Thus, the key mechanisms of imidacloprid resistance need to be examined.
RNA-seq analyses revealed that only one cytochrome P450 monooxygenase gene, CYP6ER1, was commonly upregulated in the five resistant strains tested. Sequences of CYP6ER1, which were highly expressed in the imidacloprid-resistant strains, contained a three-nucleotide deletion in the coding region, and amino acid substitutions and deletion, compared to that in an imidacloprid-susceptible strain. RNAi-mediated gene knockdown of CYP6ER1 increased imidacloprid susceptibility in a resistant strain. Further, we established two simple and convenient PCR-based molecular diagnostic methods to detect the CYP6ER1 locus with the three-nucleotide deletion. Using these methods, the resistance of F2 progenies derived from the crosses of F1 siblings from susceptible and resistant parents was analyzed, showing that the imidacloprid resistance had a relationship to the CYP6ER1 locus with the three-nucleotide deletion.
The overexpression of a variant CYP6ER1 with amino acid substitutions and deletion was involved in imidacloprid resistance in N. lugens. Based on these findings, molecular diagnostic methods have been developed and are promising tools for monitoring imidacloprid resistance in paddy fields. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.