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COVID-19: general overview, pharmacological options and ventilatory support strategies.
Multidiscip Respir Med. 2020 Jan 28; 15(1):708.MR

Abstract

The novel coronavirus called "Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2" (SARS-CoV-2) caused an outbreak in December 2019, starting from the Chinese city of Wuhan, in the Hubei province, and rapidly spreading to the rest of the world. Consequently, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) can be characterized as a pandemic. During COVID-19 several immunological alterations have been observed: in plasma of severe patients, inflammatory cytokines are at a much higher concentration ("cytokine storm"). These aspects are associated with pulmonary inflammation and parenchymal infiltrates with an extensive lung tissue damage in COVID-19 patients. To date, clinical evidence and guidelines based on reliable data and randomized clinical trials (RCTs) for the treatment of COVID-19 are lacking. In the absence of definitive management protocols, many treatments are currently being evaluated worldwide. Some of these options were soon abandoned due to ineffectiveness, while others showed promising results. As for ventilatory strategies, at the moment there are still no consistent data published about the different approaches and how they may influence disease progression. What will probably represent the real solution to this pandemic is the identification of a safe and effective vaccine, for which enormous efforts and investments are being put in place. This review will summarize the state-of-the-art of COVID-19 current treatment options and those potentially available in the future, as well as high flow oxygen therapy and non-invasive mechanical ventilation approaches.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Medical Specialties, Pneumology Unit, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, Azienda USL di Reggio Emilia- IRCCS, Reggio Emilia.Immunoallergology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Florence.Immunoallergology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Florence.Department of Medical Specialties, Pneumology Unit, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, Azienda USL di Reggio Emilia- IRCCS, Reggio Emilia.University of Rome "La Sapienza", Rome, Italy.Department of Medical Specialties, Pneumology Unit, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, Azienda USL di Reggio Emilia- IRCCS, Reggio Emilia.Department of Medical Specialties, Pneumology Unit, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, Azienda USL di Reggio Emilia- IRCCS, Reggio Emilia.Department of Medical Specialties, Pneumology Unit, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, Azienda USL di Reggio Emilia- IRCCS, Reggio Emilia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33282284

Citation

Menzella, Francesco, et al. "COVID-19: General Overview, Pharmacological Options and Ventilatory Support Strategies." Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine, vol. 15, no. 1, 2020, p. 708.
Menzella F, Matucci A, Vultaggio A, et al. COVID-19: general overview, pharmacological options and ventilatory support strategies. Multidiscip Respir Med. 2020;15(1):708.
Menzella, F., Matucci, A., Vultaggio, A., Barbieri, C., Biava, M., Scelfo, C., Fontana, M., & Facciolongo, N. C. (2020). COVID-19: general overview, pharmacological options and ventilatory support strategies. Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine, 15(1), 708. https://doi.org/10.4081/mrm.2020.708
Menzella F, et al. COVID-19: General Overview, Pharmacological Options and Ventilatory Support Strategies. Multidiscip Respir Med. 2020 Jan 28;15(1):708. PubMed PMID: 33282284.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - COVID-19: general overview, pharmacological options and ventilatory support strategies. AU - Menzella,Francesco, AU - Matucci,Andrea, AU - Vultaggio,Alessandra, AU - Barbieri,Chiara, AU - Biava,Mirella, AU - Scelfo,Chiara, AU - Fontana,Matteo, AU - Facciolongo,Nicola Cosimo, Y1 - 2020/11/09/ PY - 2020/08/09/received PY - 2020/10/19/accepted PY - 2020/12/7/entrez PY - 2020/12/8/pubmed PY - 2020/12/8/medline KW - COVID-19 KW - Coronavirus KW - non-invasive ventilation KW - pharmacologic treatment KW - pneumonia KW - respiratory failure KW - severe acute respiratory syndrome SP - 708 EP - 708 JF - Multidisciplinary respiratory medicine JO - Multidiscip Respir Med VL - 15 IS - 1 N2 - The novel coronavirus called "Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2" (SARS-CoV-2) caused an outbreak in December 2019, starting from the Chinese city of Wuhan, in the Hubei province, and rapidly spreading to the rest of the world. Consequently, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) can be characterized as a pandemic. During COVID-19 several immunological alterations have been observed: in plasma of severe patients, inflammatory cytokines are at a much higher concentration ("cytokine storm"). These aspects are associated with pulmonary inflammation and parenchymal infiltrates with an extensive lung tissue damage in COVID-19 patients. To date, clinical evidence and guidelines based on reliable data and randomized clinical trials (RCTs) for the treatment of COVID-19 are lacking. In the absence of definitive management protocols, many treatments are currently being evaluated worldwide. Some of these options were soon abandoned due to ineffectiveness, while others showed promising results. As for ventilatory strategies, at the moment there are still no consistent data published about the different approaches and how they may influence disease progression. What will probably represent the real solution to this pandemic is the identification of a safe and effective vaccine, for which enormous efforts and investments are being put in place. This review will summarize the state-of-the-art of COVID-19 current treatment options and those potentially available in the future, as well as high flow oxygen therapy and non-invasive mechanical ventilation approaches. SN - 1828-695X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33282284/COVID_19:_general_overview_pharmacological_options_and_ventilatory_support_strategies_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -