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Safety and Efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine.
N Engl J Med. 2020 12 31; 383(27):2603-2615.NEJM

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the resulting coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) have afflicted tens of millions of people in a worldwide pandemic. Safe and effective vaccines are needed urgently.

METHODS

In an ongoing multinational, placebo-controlled, observer-blinded, pivotal efficacy trial, we randomly assigned persons 16 years of age or older in a 1:1 ratio to receive two doses, 21 days apart, of either placebo or the BNT162b2 vaccine candidate (30 μg per dose). BNT162b2 is a lipid nanoparticle-formulated, nucleoside-modified RNA vaccine that encodes a prefusion stabilized, membrane-anchored SARS-CoV-2 full-length spike protein. The primary end points were efficacy of the vaccine against laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 and safety.

RESULTS

A total of 43,548 participants underwent randomization, of whom 43,448 received injections: 21,720 with BNT162b2 and 21,728 with placebo. There were 8 cases of Covid-19 with onset at least 7 days after the second dose among participants assigned to receive BNT162b2 and 162 cases among those assigned to placebo; BNT162b2 was 95% effective in preventing Covid-19 (95% credible interval, 90.3 to 97.6). Similar vaccine efficacy (generally 90 to 100%) was observed across subgroups defined by age, sex, race, ethnicity, baseline body-mass index, and the presence of coexisting conditions. Among 10 cases of severe Covid-19 with onset after the first dose, 9 occurred in placebo recipients and 1 in a BNT162b2 recipient. The safety profile of BNT162b2 was characterized by short-term, mild-to-moderate pain at the injection site, fatigue, and headache. The incidence of serious adverse events was low and was similar in the vaccine and placebo groups.

CONCLUSIONS

A two-dose regimen of BNT162b2 conferred 95% protection against Covid-19 in persons 16 years of age or older. Safety over a median of 2 months was similar to that of other viral vaccines. (Funded by BioNTech and Pfizer; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04368728.).

Authors+Show Affiliations

From Fundacion INFANT (F.P.P.) and iTrials-Hospital Militar Central (G.P.M.), Buenos Aires; State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse (S.J.T.), and Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Pearl River (J.A., A.G., K.A.S., K.K., W.V.K., D.C., P.R.D., K.U.J., W.C.G.) - both in New York; Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Hurley, United Kingdom (N.K., S.L., R.B.); Vaccine Research and Development (J.L.P., P.L.) and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management (S.M.), Pfizer, Collegeville, PA; Associação Obras Sociais Irmã Dulce and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Bahia (E.D.M.), and Centro Paulista de Investigação Clinica, São Paulo (C.Z.) - both in Brazil; Global Product Development, Pfizer, Peapack, NJ (S.R.); Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati (R.W.F.); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (L.L.H.); BioNTech, Mainz (ÖT., U.Ş.), and Medizentrum Essen Borbeck, Essen (A.S.) - both in Germany; Tiervlei Trial Centre, Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa (H.N.); Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey (S.Ü.); and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management, Pfizer, Groton, CT (D.B.T.).From Fundacion INFANT (F.P.P.) and iTrials-Hospital Militar Central (G.P.M.), Buenos Aires; State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse (S.J.T.), and Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Pearl River (J.A., A.G., K.A.S., K.K., W.V.K., D.C., P.R.D., K.U.J., W.C.G.) - both in New York; Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Hurley, United Kingdom (N.K., S.L., R.B.); Vaccine Research and Development (J.L.P., P.L.) and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management (S.M.), Pfizer, Collegeville, PA; Associação Obras Sociais Irmã Dulce and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Bahia (E.D.M.), and Centro Paulista de Investigação Clinica, São Paulo (C.Z.) - both in Brazil; Global Product Development, Pfizer, Peapack, NJ (S.R.); Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati (R.W.F.); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (L.L.H.); BioNTech, Mainz (ÖT., U.Ş.), and Medizentrum Essen Borbeck, Essen (A.S.) - both in Germany; Tiervlei Trial Centre, Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa (H.N.); Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey (S.Ü.); and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management, Pfizer, Groton, CT (D.B.T.).From Fundacion INFANT (F.P.P.) and iTrials-Hospital Militar Central (G.P.M.), Buenos Aires; State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse (S.J.T.), and Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Pearl River (J.A., A.G., K.A.S., K.K., W.V.K., D.C., P.R.D., K.U.J., W.C.G.) - both in New York; Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Hurley, United Kingdom (N.K., S.L., R.B.); Vaccine Research and Development (J.L.P., P.L.) and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management (S.M.), Pfizer, Collegeville, PA; Associação Obras Sociais Irmã Dulce and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Bahia (E.D.M.), and Centro Paulista de Investigação Clinica, São Paulo (C.Z.) - both in Brazil; Global Product Development, Pfizer, Peapack, NJ (S.R.); Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati (R.W.F.); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (L.L.H.); BioNTech, Mainz (ÖT., U.Ş.), and Medizentrum Essen Borbeck, Essen (A.S.) - both in Germany; Tiervlei Trial Centre, Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa (H.N.); Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey (S.Ü.); and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management, Pfizer, Groton, CT (D.B.T.).From Fundacion INFANT (F.P.P.) and iTrials-Hospital Militar Central (G.P.M.), Buenos Aires; State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse (S.J.T.), and Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Pearl River (J.A., A.G., K.A.S., K.K., W.V.K., D.C., P.R.D., K.U.J., W.C.G.) - both in New York; Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Hurley, United Kingdom (N.K., S.L., R.B.); Vaccine Research and Development (J.L.P., P.L.) and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management (S.M.), Pfizer, Collegeville, PA; Associação Obras Sociais Irmã Dulce and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Bahia (E.D.M.), and Centro Paulista de Investigação Clinica, São Paulo (C.Z.) - both in Brazil; Global Product Development, Pfizer, Peapack, NJ (S.R.); Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati (R.W.F.); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (L.L.H.); BioNTech, Mainz (ÖT., U.Ş.), and Medizentrum Essen Borbeck, Essen (A.S.) - both in Germany; Tiervlei Trial Centre, Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa (H.N.); Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey (S.Ü.); and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management, Pfizer, Groton, CT (D.B.T.).From Fundacion INFANT (F.P.P.) and iTrials-Hospital Militar Central (G.P.M.), Buenos Aires; State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse (S.J.T.), and Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Pearl River (J.A., A.G., K.A.S., K.K., W.V.K., D.C., P.R.D., K.U.J., W.C.G.) - both in New York; Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Hurley, United Kingdom (N.K., S.L., R.B.); Vaccine Research and Development (J.L.P., P.L.) and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management (S.M.), Pfizer, Collegeville, PA; Associação Obras Sociais Irmã Dulce and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Bahia (E.D.M.), and Centro Paulista de Investigação Clinica, São Paulo (C.Z.) - both in Brazil; Global Product Development, Pfizer, Peapack, NJ (S.R.); Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati (R.W.F.); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (L.L.H.); BioNTech, Mainz (ÖT., U.Ş.), and Medizentrum Essen Borbeck, Essen (A.S.) - both in Germany; Tiervlei Trial Centre, Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa (H.N.); Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey (S.Ü.); and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management, Pfizer, Groton, CT (D.B.T.).From Fundacion INFANT (F.P.P.) and iTrials-Hospital Militar Central (G.P.M.), Buenos Aires; State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse (S.J.T.), and Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Pearl River (J.A., A.G., K.A.S., K.K., W.V.K., D.C., P.R.D., K.U.J., W.C.G.) - both in New York; Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Hurley, United Kingdom (N.K., S.L., R.B.); Vaccine Research and Development (J.L.P., P.L.) and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management (S.M.), Pfizer, Collegeville, PA; Associação Obras Sociais Irmã Dulce and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Bahia (E.D.M.), and Centro Paulista de Investigação Clinica, São Paulo (C.Z.) - both in Brazil; Global Product Development, Pfizer, Peapack, NJ (S.R.); Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati (R.W.F.); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (L.L.H.); BioNTech, Mainz (ÖT., U.Ş.), and Medizentrum Essen Borbeck, Essen (A.S.) - both in Germany; Tiervlei Trial Centre, Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa (H.N.); Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey (S.Ü.); and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management, Pfizer, Groton, CT (D.B.T.).From Fundacion INFANT (F.P.P.) and iTrials-Hospital Militar Central (G.P.M.), Buenos Aires; State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse (S.J.T.), and Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Pearl River (J.A., A.G., K.A.S., K.K., W.V.K., D.C., P.R.D., K.U.J., W.C.G.) - both in New York; Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Hurley, United Kingdom (N.K., S.L., R.B.); Vaccine Research and Development (J.L.P., P.L.) and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management (S.M.), Pfizer, Collegeville, PA; Associação Obras Sociais Irmã Dulce and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Bahia (E.D.M.), and Centro Paulista de Investigação Clinica, São Paulo (C.Z.) - both in Brazil; Global Product Development, Pfizer, Peapack, NJ (S.R.); Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati (R.W.F.); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (L.L.H.); BioNTech, Mainz (ÖT., U.Ş.), and Medizentrum Essen Borbeck, Essen (A.S.) - both in Germany; Tiervlei Trial Centre, Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa (H.N.); Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey (S.Ü.); and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management, Pfizer, Groton, CT (D.B.T.).From Fundacion INFANT (F.P.P.) and iTrials-Hospital Militar Central (G.P.M.), Buenos Aires; State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse (S.J.T.), and Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Pearl River (J.A., A.G., K.A.S., K.K., W.V.K., D.C., P.R.D., K.U.J., W.C.G.) - both in New York; Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Hurley, United Kingdom (N.K., S.L., R.B.); Vaccine Research and Development (J.L.P., P.L.) and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management (S.M.), Pfizer, Collegeville, PA; Associação Obras Sociais Irmã Dulce and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Bahia (E.D.M.), and Centro Paulista de Investigação Clinica, São Paulo (C.Z.) - both in Brazil; Global Product Development, Pfizer, Peapack, NJ (S.R.); Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati (R.W.F.); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (L.L.H.); BioNTech, Mainz (ÖT., U.Ş.), and Medizentrum Essen Borbeck, Essen (A.S.) - both in Germany; Tiervlei Trial Centre, Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa (H.N.); Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey (S.Ü.); and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management, Pfizer, Groton, CT (D.B.T.).From Fundacion INFANT (F.P.P.) and iTrials-Hospital Militar Central (G.P.M.), Buenos Aires; State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse (S.J.T.), and Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Pearl River (J.A., A.G., K.A.S., K.K., W.V.K., D.C., P.R.D., K.U.J., W.C.G.) - both in New York; Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Hurley, United Kingdom (N.K., S.L., R.B.); Vaccine Research and Development (J.L.P., P.L.) and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management (S.M.), Pfizer, Collegeville, PA; Associação Obras Sociais Irmã Dulce and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Bahia (E.D.M.), and Centro Paulista de Investigação Clinica, São Paulo (C.Z.) - both in Brazil; Global Product Development, Pfizer, Peapack, NJ (S.R.); Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati (R.W.F.); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (L.L.H.); BioNTech, Mainz (ÖT., U.Ş.), and Medizentrum Essen Borbeck, Essen (A.S.) - both in Germany; Tiervlei Trial Centre, Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa (H.N.); Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey (S.Ü.); and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management, Pfizer, Groton, CT (D.B.T.).From Fundacion INFANT (F.P.P.) and iTrials-Hospital Militar Central (G.P.M.), Buenos Aires; State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse (S.J.T.), and Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Pearl River (J.A., A.G., K.A.S., K.K., W.V.K., D.C., P.R.D., K.U.J., W.C.G.) - both in New York; Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Hurley, United Kingdom (N.K., S.L., R.B.); Vaccine Research and Development (J.L.P., P.L.) and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management (S.M.), Pfizer, Collegeville, PA; Associação Obras Sociais Irmã Dulce and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Bahia (E.D.M.), and Centro Paulista de Investigação Clinica, São Paulo (C.Z.) - both in Brazil; Global Product Development, Pfizer, Peapack, NJ (S.R.); Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati (R.W.F.); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (L.L.H.); BioNTech, Mainz (ÖT., U.Ş.), and Medizentrum Essen Borbeck, Essen (A.S.) - both in Germany; Tiervlei Trial Centre, Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa (H.N.); Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey (S.Ü.); and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management, Pfizer, Groton, CT (D.B.T.).From Fundacion INFANT (F.P.P.) and iTrials-Hospital Militar Central (G.P.M.), Buenos Aires; State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse (S.J.T.), and Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Pearl River (J.A., A.G., K.A.S., K.K., W.V.K., D.C., P.R.D., K.U.J., W.C.G.) - both in New York; Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Hurley, United Kingdom (N.K., S.L., R.B.); Vaccine Research and Development (J.L.P., P.L.) and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management (S.M.), Pfizer, Collegeville, PA; Associação Obras Sociais Irmã Dulce and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Bahia (E.D.M.), and Centro Paulista de Investigação Clinica, São Paulo (C.Z.) - both in Brazil; Global Product Development, Pfizer, Peapack, NJ (S.R.); Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati (R.W.F.); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (L.L.H.); BioNTech, Mainz (ÖT., U.Ş.), and Medizentrum Essen Borbeck, Essen (A.S.) - both in Germany; Tiervlei Trial Centre, Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa (H.N.); Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey (S.Ü.); and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management, Pfizer, Groton, CT (D.B.T.).From Fundacion INFANT (F.P.P.) and iTrials-Hospital Militar Central (G.P.M.), Buenos Aires; State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse (S.J.T.), and Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Pearl River (J.A., A.G., K.A.S., K.K., W.V.K., D.C., P.R.D., K.U.J., W.C.G.) - both in New York; Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Hurley, United Kingdom (N.K., S.L., R.B.); Vaccine Research and Development (J.L.P., P.L.) and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management (S.M.), Pfizer, Collegeville, PA; Associação Obras Sociais Irmã Dulce and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Bahia (E.D.M.), and Centro Paulista de Investigação Clinica, São Paulo (C.Z.) - both in Brazil; Global Product Development, Pfizer, Peapack, NJ (S.R.); Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati (R.W.F.); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (L.L.H.); BioNTech, Mainz (ÖT., U.Ş.), and Medizentrum Essen Borbeck, Essen (A.S.) - both in Germany; Tiervlei Trial Centre, Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa (H.N.); Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey (S.Ü.); and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management, Pfizer, Groton, CT (D.B.T.).From Fundacion INFANT (F.P.P.) and iTrials-Hospital Militar Central (G.P.M.), Buenos Aires; State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse (S.J.T.), and Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Pearl River (J.A., A.G., K.A.S., K.K., W.V.K., D.C., P.R.D., K.U.J., W.C.G.) - both in New York; Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Hurley, United Kingdom (N.K., S.L., R.B.); Vaccine Research and Development (J.L.P., P.L.) and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management (S.M.), Pfizer, Collegeville, PA; Associação Obras Sociais Irmã Dulce and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Bahia (E.D.M.), and Centro Paulista de Investigação Clinica, São Paulo (C.Z.) - both in Brazil; Global Product Development, Pfizer, Peapack, NJ (S.R.); Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati (R.W.F.); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (L.L.H.); BioNTech, Mainz (ÖT., U.Ş.), and Medizentrum Essen Borbeck, Essen (A.S.) - both in Germany; Tiervlei Trial Centre, Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa (H.N.); Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey (S.Ü.); and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management, Pfizer, Groton, CT (D.B.T.).From Fundacion INFANT (F.P.P.) and iTrials-Hospital Militar Central (G.P.M.), Buenos Aires; State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse (S.J.T.), and Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Pearl River (J.A., A.G., K.A.S., K.K., W.V.K., D.C., P.R.D., K.U.J., W.C.G.) - both in New York; Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Hurley, United Kingdom (N.K., S.L., R.B.); Vaccine Research and Development (J.L.P., P.L.) and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management (S.M.), Pfizer, Collegeville, PA; Associação Obras Sociais Irmã Dulce and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Bahia (E.D.M.), and Centro Paulista de Investigação Clinica, São Paulo (C.Z.) - both in Brazil; Global Product Development, Pfizer, Peapack, NJ (S.R.); Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati (R.W.F.); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (L.L.H.); BioNTech, Mainz (ÖT., U.Ş.), and Medizentrum Essen Borbeck, Essen (A.S.) - both in Germany; Tiervlei Trial Centre, Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa (H.N.); Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey (S.Ü.); and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management, Pfizer, Groton, CT (D.B.T.).From Fundacion INFANT (F.P.P.) and iTrials-Hospital Militar Central (G.P.M.), Buenos Aires; State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse (S.J.T.), and Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Pearl River (J.A., A.G., K.A.S., K.K., W.V.K., D.C., P.R.D., K.U.J., W.C.G.) - both in New York; Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Hurley, United Kingdom (N.K., S.L., R.B.); Vaccine Research and Development (J.L.P., P.L.) and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management (S.M.), Pfizer, Collegeville, PA; Associação Obras Sociais Irmã Dulce and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Bahia (E.D.M.), and Centro Paulista de Investigação Clinica, São Paulo (C.Z.) - both in Brazil; Global Product Development, Pfizer, Peapack, NJ (S.R.); Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati (R.W.F.); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (L.L.H.); BioNTech, Mainz (ÖT., U.Ş.), and Medizentrum Essen Borbeck, Essen (A.S.) - both in Germany; Tiervlei Trial Centre, Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa (H.N.); Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey (S.Ü.); and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management, Pfizer, Groton, CT (D.B.T.).From Fundacion INFANT (F.P.P.) and iTrials-Hospital Militar Central (G.P.M.), Buenos Aires; State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse (S.J.T.), and Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Pearl River (J.A., A.G., K.A.S., K.K., W.V.K., D.C., P.R.D., K.U.J., W.C.G.) - both in New York; Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Hurley, United Kingdom (N.K., S.L., R.B.); Vaccine Research and Development (J.L.P., P.L.) and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management (S.M.), Pfizer, Collegeville, PA; Associação Obras Sociais Irmã Dulce and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Bahia (E.D.M.), and Centro Paulista de Investigação Clinica, São Paulo (C.Z.) - both in Brazil; Global Product Development, Pfizer, Peapack, NJ (S.R.); Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati (R.W.F.); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (L.L.H.); BioNTech, Mainz (ÖT., U.Ş.), and Medizentrum Essen Borbeck, Essen (A.S.) - both in Germany; Tiervlei Trial Centre, Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa (H.N.); Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey (S.Ü.); and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management, Pfizer, Groton, CT (D.B.T.).From Fundacion INFANT (F.P.P.) and iTrials-Hospital Militar Central (G.P.M.), Buenos Aires; State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse (S.J.T.), and Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Pearl River (J.A., A.G., K.A.S., K.K., W.V.K., D.C., P.R.D., K.U.J., W.C.G.) - both in New York; Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Hurley, United Kingdom (N.K., S.L., R.B.); Vaccine Research and Development (J.L.P., P.L.) and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management (S.M.), Pfizer, Collegeville, PA; Associação Obras Sociais Irmã Dulce and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Bahia (E.D.M.), and Centro Paulista de Investigação Clinica, São Paulo (C.Z.) - both in Brazil; Global Product Development, Pfizer, Peapack, NJ (S.R.); Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati (R.W.F.); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (L.L.H.); BioNTech, Mainz (ÖT., U.Ş.), and Medizentrum Essen Borbeck, Essen (A.S.) - both in Germany; Tiervlei Trial Centre, Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa (H.N.); Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey (S.Ü.); and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management, Pfizer, Groton, CT (D.B.T.).From Fundacion INFANT (F.P.P.) and iTrials-Hospital Militar Central (G.P.M.), Buenos Aires; State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse (S.J.T.), and Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Pearl River (J.A., A.G., K.A.S., K.K., W.V.K., D.C., P.R.D., K.U.J., W.C.G.) - both in New York; Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Hurley, United Kingdom (N.K., S.L., R.B.); Vaccine Research and Development (J.L.P., P.L.) and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management (S.M.), Pfizer, Collegeville, PA; Associação Obras Sociais Irmã Dulce and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Bahia (E.D.M.), and Centro Paulista de Investigação Clinica, São Paulo (C.Z.) - both in Brazil; Global Product Development, Pfizer, Peapack, NJ (S.R.); Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati (R.W.F.); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (L.L.H.); BioNTech, Mainz (ÖT., U.Ş.), and Medizentrum Essen Borbeck, Essen (A.S.) - both in Germany; Tiervlei Trial Centre, Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa (H.N.); Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey (S.Ü.); and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management, Pfizer, Groton, CT (D.B.T.).From Fundacion INFANT (F.P.P.) and iTrials-Hospital Militar Central (G.P.M.), Buenos Aires; State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse (S.J.T.), and Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Pearl River (J.A., A.G., K.A.S., K.K., W.V.K., D.C., P.R.D., K.U.J., W.C.G.) - both in New York; Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Hurley, United Kingdom (N.K., S.L., R.B.); Vaccine Research and Development (J.L.P., P.L.) and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management (S.M.), Pfizer, Collegeville, PA; Associação Obras Sociais Irmã Dulce and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Bahia (E.D.M.), and Centro Paulista de Investigação Clinica, São Paulo (C.Z.) - both in Brazil; Global Product Development, Pfizer, Peapack, NJ (S.R.); Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati (R.W.F.); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (L.L.H.); BioNTech, Mainz (ÖT., U.Ş.), and Medizentrum Essen Borbeck, Essen (A.S.) - both in Germany; Tiervlei Trial Centre, Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa (H.N.); Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey (S.Ü.); and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management, Pfizer, Groton, CT (D.B.T.).From Fundacion INFANT (F.P.P.) and iTrials-Hospital Militar Central (G.P.M.), Buenos Aires; State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse (S.J.T.), and Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Pearl River (J.A., A.G., K.A.S., K.K., W.V.K., D.C., P.R.D., K.U.J., W.C.G.) - both in New York; Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Hurley, United Kingdom (N.K., S.L., R.B.); Vaccine Research and Development (J.L.P., P.L.) and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management (S.M.), Pfizer, Collegeville, PA; Associação Obras Sociais Irmã Dulce and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Bahia (E.D.M.), and Centro Paulista de Investigação Clinica, São Paulo (C.Z.) - both in Brazil; Global Product Development, Pfizer, Peapack, NJ (S.R.); Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati (R.W.F.); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (L.L.H.); BioNTech, Mainz (ÖT., U.Ş.), and Medizentrum Essen Borbeck, Essen (A.S.) - both in Germany; Tiervlei Trial Centre, Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa (H.N.); Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey (S.Ü.); and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management, Pfizer, Groton, CT (D.B.T.).From Fundacion INFANT (F.P.P.) and iTrials-Hospital Militar Central (G.P.M.), Buenos Aires; State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse (S.J.T.), and Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Pearl River (J.A., A.G., K.A.S., K.K., W.V.K., D.C., P.R.D., K.U.J., W.C.G.) - both in New York; Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Hurley, United Kingdom (N.K., S.L., R.B.); Vaccine Research and Development (J.L.P., P.L.) and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management (S.M.), Pfizer, Collegeville, PA; Associação Obras Sociais Irmã Dulce and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Bahia (E.D.M.), and Centro Paulista de Investigação Clinica, São Paulo (C.Z.) - both in Brazil; Global Product Development, Pfizer, Peapack, NJ (S.R.); Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati (R.W.F.); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (L.L.H.); BioNTech, Mainz (ÖT., U.Ş.), and Medizentrum Essen Borbeck, Essen (A.S.) - both in Germany; Tiervlei Trial Centre, Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa (H.N.); Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey (S.Ü.); and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management, Pfizer, Groton, CT (D.B.T.).From Fundacion INFANT (F.P.P.) and iTrials-Hospital Militar Central (G.P.M.), Buenos Aires; State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse (S.J.T.), and Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Pearl River (J.A., A.G., K.A.S., K.K., W.V.K., D.C., P.R.D., K.U.J., W.C.G.) - both in New York; Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Hurley, United Kingdom (N.K., S.L., R.B.); Vaccine Research and Development (J.L.P., P.L.) and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management (S.M.), Pfizer, Collegeville, PA; Associação Obras Sociais Irmã Dulce and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Bahia (E.D.M.), and Centro Paulista de Investigação Clinica, São Paulo (C.Z.) - both in Brazil; Global Product Development, Pfizer, Peapack, NJ (S.R.); Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati (R.W.F.); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (L.L.H.); BioNTech, Mainz (ÖT., U.Ş.), and Medizentrum Essen Borbeck, Essen (A.S.) - both in Germany; Tiervlei Trial Centre, Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa (H.N.); Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey (S.Ü.); and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management, Pfizer, Groton, CT (D.B.T.).From Fundacion INFANT (F.P.P.) and iTrials-Hospital Militar Central (G.P.M.), Buenos Aires; State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse (S.J.T.), and Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Pearl River (J.A., A.G., K.A.S., K.K., W.V.K., D.C., P.R.D., K.U.J., W.C.G.) - both in New York; Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Hurley, United Kingdom (N.K., S.L., R.B.); Vaccine Research and Development (J.L.P., P.L.) and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management (S.M.), Pfizer, Collegeville, PA; Associação Obras Sociais Irmã Dulce and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Bahia (E.D.M.), and Centro Paulista de Investigação Clinica, São Paulo (C.Z.) - both in Brazil; Global Product Development, Pfizer, Peapack, NJ (S.R.); Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati (R.W.F.); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (L.L.H.); BioNTech, Mainz (ÖT., U.Ş.), and Medizentrum Essen Borbeck, Essen (A.S.) - both in Germany; Tiervlei Trial Centre, Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa (H.N.); Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey (S.Ü.); and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management, Pfizer, Groton, CT (D.B.T.).From Fundacion INFANT (F.P.P.) and iTrials-Hospital Militar Central (G.P.M.), Buenos Aires; State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse (S.J.T.), and Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Pearl River (J.A., A.G., K.A.S., K.K., W.V.K., D.C., P.R.D., K.U.J., W.C.G.) - both in New York; Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Hurley, United Kingdom (N.K., S.L., R.B.); Vaccine Research and Development (J.L.P., P.L.) and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management (S.M.), Pfizer, Collegeville, PA; Associação Obras Sociais Irmã Dulce and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Bahia (E.D.M.), and Centro Paulista de Investigação Clinica, São Paulo (C.Z.) - both in Brazil; Global Product Development, Pfizer, Peapack, NJ (S.R.); Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati (R.W.F.); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (L.L.H.); BioNTech, Mainz (ÖT., U.Ş.), and Medizentrum Essen Borbeck, Essen (A.S.) - both in Germany; Tiervlei Trial Centre, Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa (H.N.); Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey (S.Ü.); and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management, Pfizer, Groton, CT (D.B.T.).From Fundacion INFANT (F.P.P.) and iTrials-Hospital Militar Central (G.P.M.), Buenos Aires; State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse (S.J.T.), and Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Pearl River (J.A., A.G., K.A.S., K.K., W.V.K., D.C., P.R.D., K.U.J., W.C.G.) - both in New York; Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Hurley, United Kingdom (N.K., S.L., R.B.); Vaccine Research and Development (J.L.P., P.L.) and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management (S.M.), Pfizer, Collegeville, PA; Associação Obras Sociais Irmã Dulce and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Bahia (E.D.M.), and Centro Paulista de Investigação Clinica, São Paulo (C.Z.) - both in Brazil; Global Product Development, Pfizer, Peapack, NJ (S.R.); Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati (R.W.F.); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (L.L.H.); BioNTech, Mainz (ÖT., U.Ş.), and Medizentrum Essen Borbeck, Essen (A.S.) - both in Germany; Tiervlei Trial Centre, Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa (H.N.); Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey (S.Ü.); and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management, Pfizer, Groton, CT (D.B.T.).From Fundacion INFANT (F.P.P.) and iTrials-Hospital Militar Central (G.P.M.), Buenos Aires; State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse (S.J.T.), and Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Pearl River (J.A., A.G., K.A.S., K.K., W.V.K., D.C., P.R.D., K.U.J., W.C.G.) - both in New York; Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Hurley, United Kingdom (N.K., S.L., R.B.); Vaccine Research and Development (J.L.P., P.L.) and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management (S.M.), Pfizer, Collegeville, PA; Associação Obras Sociais Irmã Dulce and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Bahia (E.D.M.), and Centro Paulista de Investigação Clinica, São Paulo (C.Z.) - both in Brazil; Global Product Development, Pfizer, Peapack, NJ (S.R.); Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati (R.W.F.); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (L.L.H.); BioNTech, Mainz (ÖT., U.Ş.), and Medizentrum Essen Borbeck, Essen (A.S.) - both in Germany; Tiervlei Trial Centre, Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa (H.N.); Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey (S.Ü.); and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management, Pfizer, Groton, CT (D.B.T.).From Fundacion INFANT (F.P.P.) and iTrials-Hospital Militar Central (G.P.M.), Buenos Aires; State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse (S.J.T.), and Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Pearl River (J.A., A.G., K.A.S., K.K., W.V.K., D.C., P.R.D., K.U.J., W.C.G.) - both in New York; Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Hurley, United Kingdom (N.K., S.L., R.B.); Vaccine Research and Development (J.L.P., P.L.) and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management (S.M.), Pfizer, Collegeville, PA; Associação Obras Sociais Irmã Dulce and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Bahia (E.D.M.), and Centro Paulista de Investigação Clinica, São Paulo (C.Z.) - both in Brazil; Global Product Development, Pfizer, Peapack, NJ (S.R.); Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati (R.W.F.); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (L.L.H.); BioNTech, Mainz (ÖT., U.Ş.), and Medizentrum Essen Borbeck, Essen (A.S.) - both in Germany; Tiervlei Trial Centre, Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa (H.N.); Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey (S.Ü.); and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management, Pfizer, Groton, CT (D.B.T.).From Fundacion INFANT (F.P.P.) and iTrials-Hospital Militar Central (G.P.M.), Buenos Aires; State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse (S.J.T.), and Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Pearl River (J.A., A.G., K.A.S., K.K., W.V.K., D.C., P.R.D., K.U.J., W.C.G.) - both in New York; Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Hurley, United Kingdom (N.K., S.L., R.B.); Vaccine Research and Development (J.L.P., P.L.) and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management (S.M.), Pfizer, Collegeville, PA; Associação Obras Sociais Irmã Dulce and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Bahia (E.D.M.), and Centro Paulista de Investigação Clinica, São Paulo (C.Z.) - both in Brazil; Global Product Development, Pfizer, Peapack, NJ (S.R.); Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati (R.W.F.); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (L.L.H.); BioNTech, Mainz (ÖT., U.Ş.), and Medizentrum Essen Borbeck, Essen (A.S.) - both in Germany; Tiervlei Trial Centre, Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa (H.N.); Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey (S.Ü.); and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management, Pfizer, Groton, CT (D.B.T.).From Fundacion INFANT (F.P.P.) and iTrials-Hospital Militar Central (G.P.M.), Buenos Aires; State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse (S.J.T.), and Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Pearl River (J.A., A.G., K.A.S., K.K., W.V.K., D.C., P.R.D., K.U.J., W.C.G.) - both in New York; Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Hurley, United Kingdom (N.K., S.L., R.B.); Vaccine Research and Development (J.L.P., P.L.) and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management (S.M.), Pfizer, Collegeville, PA; Associação Obras Sociais Irmã Dulce and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Bahia (E.D.M.), and Centro Paulista de Investigação Clinica, São Paulo (C.Z.) - both in Brazil; Global Product Development, Pfizer, Peapack, NJ (S.R.); Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati (R.W.F.); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (L.L.H.); BioNTech, Mainz (ÖT., U.Ş.), and Medizentrum Essen Borbeck, Essen (A.S.) - both in Germany; Tiervlei Trial Centre, Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa (H.N.); Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey (S.Ü.); and Worldwide Safety, Safety Surveillance and Risk Management, Pfizer, Groton, CT (D.B.T.).No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial, Phase II
Clinical Trial, Phase III
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33301246

Citation

Polack, Fernando P., et al. "Safety and Efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine." The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 383, no. 27, 2020, pp. 2603-2615.
Polack FP, Thomas SJ, Kitchin N, et al. Safety and Efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2020;383(27):2603-2615.
Polack, F. P., Thomas, S. J., Kitchin, N., Absalon, J., Gurtman, A., Lockhart, S., Perez, J. L., Pérez Marc, G., Moreira, E. D., Zerbini, C., Bailey, R., Swanson, K. A., Roychoudhury, S., Koury, K., Li, P., Kalina, W. V., Cooper, D., Frenck, R. W., Hammitt, L. L., ... Gruber, W. C. (2020). Safety and Efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine. The New England Journal of Medicine, 383(27), 2603-2615. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2034577
Polack FP, et al. Safety and Efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2020 12 31;383(27):2603-2615. PubMed PMID: 33301246.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Safety and Efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine. AU - Polack,Fernando P, AU - Thomas,Stephen J, AU - Kitchin,Nicholas, AU - Absalon,Judith, AU - Gurtman,Alejandra, AU - Lockhart,Stephen, AU - Perez,John L, AU - Pérez Marc,Gonzalo, AU - Moreira,Edson D, AU - Zerbini,Cristiano, AU - Bailey,Ruth, AU - Swanson,Kena A, AU - Roychoudhury,Satrajit, AU - Koury,Kenneth, AU - Li,Ping, AU - Kalina,Warren V, AU - Cooper,David, AU - Frenck,Robert W,Jr AU - Hammitt,Laura L, AU - Türeci,Özlem, AU - Nell,Haylene, AU - Schaefer,Axel, AU - Ünal,Serhat, AU - Tresnan,Dina B, AU - Mather,Susan, AU - Dormitzer,Philip R, AU - Şahin,Uğur, AU - Jansen,Kathrin U, AU - Gruber,William C, AU - ,, Y1 - 2020/12/10/ PY - 2020/12/11/pubmed PY - 2021/1/13/medline PY - 2020/12/10/entrez SP - 2603 EP - 2615 JF - The New England journal of medicine JO - N Engl J Med VL - 383 IS - 27 N2 - BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the resulting coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) have afflicted tens of millions of people in a worldwide pandemic. Safe and effective vaccines are needed urgently. METHODS: In an ongoing multinational, placebo-controlled, observer-blinded, pivotal efficacy trial, we randomly assigned persons 16 years of age or older in a 1:1 ratio to receive two doses, 21 days apart, of either placebo or the BNT162b2 vaccine candidate (30 μg per dose). BNT162b2 is a lipid nanoparticle-formulated, nucleoside-modified RNA vaccine that encodes a prefusion stabilized, membrane-anchored SARS-CoV-2 full-length spike protein. The primary end points were efficacy of the vaccine against laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 and safety. RESULTS: A total of 43,548 participants underwent randomization, of whom 43,448 received injections: 21,720 with BNT162b2 and 21,728 with placebo. There were 8 cases of Covid-19 with onset at least 7 days after the second dose among participants assigned to receive BNT162b2 and 162 cases among those assigned to placebo; BNT162b2 was 95% effective in preventing Covid-19 (95% credible interval, 90.3 to 97.6). Similar vaccine efficacy (generally 90 to 100%) was observed across subgroups defined by age, sex, race, ethnicity, baseline body-mass index, and the presence of coexisting conditions. Among 10 cases of severe Covid-19 with onset after the first dose, 9 occurred in placebo recipients and 1 in a BNT162b2 recipient. The safety profile of BNT162b2 was characterized by short-term, mild-to-moderate pain at the injection site, fatigue, and headache. The incidence of serious adverse events was low and was similar in the vaccine and placebo groups. CONCLUSIONS: A two-dose regimen of BNT162b2 conferred 95% protection against Covid-19 in persons 16 years of age or older. Safety over a median of 2 months was similar to that of other viral vaccines. (Funded by BioNTech and Pfizer; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04368728.). SN - 1533-4406 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33301246/Safety_and_Efficacy_of_the_BNT162b2_mRNA_Covid_19_Vaccine_ L2 - https://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMoa2034577?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -