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Baricitinib plus Remdesivir for Hospitalized Adults with Covid-19.
N Engl J Med. 2021 03 04; 384(9):795-807.NEJM

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is associated with dysregulated inflammation. The effects of combination treatment with baricitinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor, plus remdesivir are not known.

METHODS

We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluating baricitinib plus remdesivir in hospitalized adults with Covid-19. All the patients received remdesivir (≤10 days) and either baricitinib (≤14 days) or placebo (control). The primary outcome was the time to recovery. The key secondary outcome was clinical status at day 15.

RESULTS

A total of 1033 patients underwent randomization (with 515 assigned to combination treatment and 518 to control). Patients receiving baricitinib had a median time to recovery of 7 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 6 to 8), as compared with 8 days (95% CI, 7 to 9) with control (rate ratio for recovery, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.32; P = 0.03), and a 30% higher odds of improvement in clinical status at day 15 (odds ratio, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0 to 1.6). Patients receiving high-flow oxygen or noninvasive ventilation at enrollment had a time to recovery of 10 days with combination treatment and 18 days with control (rate ratio for recovery, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.08). The 28-day mortality was 5.1% in the combination group and 7.8% in the control group (hazard ratio for death, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.39 to 1.09). Serious adverse events were less frequent in the combination group than in the control group (16.0% vs. 21.0%; difference, -5.0 percentage points; 95% CI, -9.8 to -0.3; P = 0.03), as were new infections (5.9% vs. 11.2%; difference, -5.3 percentage points; 95% CI, -8.7 to -1.9; P = 0.003).

CONCLUSIONS

Baricitinib plus remdesivir was superior to remdesivir alone in reducing recovery time and accelerating improvement in clinical status among patients with Covid-19, notably among those receiving high-flow oxygen or noninvasive ventilation. The combination was associated with fewer serious adverse events. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04401579.).

Authors+Show Affiliations

From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.C.K., L.L.); University of Texas Health San Antonio, University Health, and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (T.F.P., P.O.P., B.S.T.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System (M.K.J.) and Baylor Scott and White Health (U.S.), Dallas, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.) - all in Texas; Emory University (A.K.M., N.G.R., Y.S., V.C.M., V.D.C.) and Grady Memorial Hospital (V.D.C.), Atlanta, and Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur (V.C.M.) - both in Georgia; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (K.M.T., V.G., R.T.D., M.P., G.A.D., W.D., S.U.N., L.E.D., J.H.B.), and the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (T.H.B.), Bethesda, and Emmes (J.F., M.G., M.M.) and Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Laboratory (T.B.), Rockville - both in Maryland; Duke University, Durham, NC (C.R.W., E.R.K., J.J.E.); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, (G.M.R.-P.) and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (J.R.P.), Mexico City; University of California Irvine, Irvine (L.H., A.N.A., M.W.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (V.T.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (D.A.S.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (A.F.L.), University of California, Davis, Davis (S.H.C.), and Stanford University, Stanford (N.A.) - all in California; University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (S.K., J.B.); University of Florida, Gainesville (N.M.I., M.-C.E.); University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (A.R.B.); National Center for Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (D.C.L.), and Changi General Hospital (S.Y.T.), Singapore; University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (R.W.F.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville (P.E.H.J.); Northwestern University, Chicago (B.T.); Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (C.I.P.); Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA (H.A.); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (N.E.); Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (M.F.); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (M.O.), and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (E.-S.K.) - both in South Korea; Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR (R.A.M.); Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (H.N.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (A.C., S.B.).No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33306283

Citation

Kalil, Andre C., et al. "Baricitinib Plus Remdesivir for Hospitalized Adults With Covid-19." The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 384, no. 9, 2021, pp. 795-807.
Kalil AC, Patterson TF, Mehta AK, et al. Baricitinib plus Remdesivir for Hospitalized Adults with Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2021;384(9):795-807.
Kalil, A. C., Patterson, T. F., Mehta, A. K., Tomashek, K. M., Wolfe, C. R., Ghazaryan, V., Marconi, V. C., Ruiz-Palacios, G. M., Hsieh, L., Kline, S., Tapson, V., Iovine, N. M., Jain, M. K., Sweeney, D. A., El Sahly, H. M., Branche, A. R., Regalado Pineda, J., Lye, D. C., Sandkovsky, U., ... Beigel, J. H. (2021). Baricitinib plus Remdesivir for Hospitalized Adults with Covid-19. The New England Journal of Medicine, 384(9), 795-807. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2031994
Kalil AC, et al. Baricitinib Plus Remdesivir for Hospitalized Adults With Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2021 03 4;384(9):795-807. PubMed PMID: 33306283.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Baricitinib plus Remdesivir for Hospitalized Adults with Covid-19. AU - Kalil,Andre C, AU - Patterson,Thomas F, AU - Mehta,Aneesh K, AU - Tomashek,Kay M, AU - Wolfe,Cameron R, AU - Ghazaryan,Varduhi, AU - Marconi,Vincent C, AU - Ruiz-Palacios,Guillermo M, AU - Hsieh,Lanny, AU - Kline,Susan, AU - Tapson,Victor, AU - Iovine,Nicole M, AU - Jain,Mamta K, AU - Sweeney,Daniel A, AU - El Sahly,Hana M, AU - Branche,Angela R, AU - Regalado Pineda,Justino, AU - Lye,David C, AU - Sandkovsky,Uriel, AU - Luetkemeyer,Anne F, AU - Cohen,Stuart H, AU - Finberg,Robert W, AU - Jackson,Patrick E H, AU - Taiwo,Babafemi, AU - Paules,Catharine I, AU - Arguinchona,Henry, AU - Erdmann,Nathaniel, AU - Ahuja,Neera, AU - Frank,Maria, AU - Oh,Myoung-Don, AU - Kim,Eu-Suk, AU - Tan,Seow Y, AU - Mularski,Richard A, AU - Nielsen,Henrik, AU - Ponce,Philip O, AU - Taylor,Barbara S, AU - Larson,LuAnn, AU - Rouphael,Nadine G, AU - Saklawi,Youssef, AU - Cantos,Valeria D, AU - Ko,Emily R, AU - Engemann,John J, AU - Amin,Alpesh N, AU - Watanabe,Miki, AU - Billings,Joanne, AU - Elie,Marie-Carmelle, AU - Davey,Richard T, AU - Burgess,Timothy H, AU - Ferreira,Jennifer, AU - Green,Michelle, AU - Makowski,Mat, AU - Cardoso,Anabela, AU - de Bono,Stephanie, AU - Bonnett,Tyler, AU - Proschan,Michael, AU - Deye,Gregory A, AU - Dempsey,Walla, AU - Nayak,Seema U, AU - Dodd,Lori E, AU - Beigel,John H, AU - ,, Y1 - 2020/12/11/ PY - 2020/12/12/pubmed PY - 2021/3/9/medline PY - 2020/12/11/entrez SP - 795 EP - 807 JF - The New England journal of medicine JO - N Engl J Med VL - 384 IS - 9 N2 - BACKGROUND: Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is associated with dysregulated inflammation. The effects of combination treatment with baricitinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor, plus remdesivir are not known. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluating baricitinib plus remdesivir in hospitalized adults with Covid-19. All the patients received remdesivir (≤10 days) and either baricitinib (≤14 days) or placebo (control). The primary outcome was the time to recovery. The key secondary outcome was clinical status at day 15. RESULTS: A total of 1033 patients underwent randomization (with 515 assigned to combination treatment and 518 to control). Patients receiving baricitinib had a median time to recovery of 7 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 6 to 8), as compared with 8 days (95% CI, 7 to 9) with control (rate ratio for recovery, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.32; P = 0.03), and a 30% higher odds of improvement in clinical status at day 15 (odds ratio, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0 to 1.6). Patients receiving high-flow oxygen or noninvasive ventilation at enrollment had a time to recovery of 10 days with combination treatment and 18 days with control (rate ratio for recovery, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.08). The 28-day mortality was 5.1% in the combination group and 7.8% in the control group (hazard ratio for death, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.39 to 1.09). Serious adverse events were less frequent in the combination group than in the control group (16.0% vs. 21.0%; difference, -5.0 percentage points; 95% CI, -9.8 to -0.3; P = 0.03), as were new infections (5.9% vs. 11.2%; difference, -5.3 percentage points; 95% CI, -8.7 to -1.9; P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Baricitinib plus remdesivir was superior to remdesivir alone in reducing recovery time and accelerating improvement in clinical status among patients with Covid-19, notably among those receiving high-flow oxygen or noninvasive ventilation. The combination was associated with fewer serious adverse events. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04401579.). SN - 1533-4406 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33306283/Baricitinib_plus_Remdesivir_for_Hospitalized_Adults_with_Covid_19_ L2 - https://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMoa2031994?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -