Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Modeling to Support Waivers of In Vivo Clinical Studies: Current Status, Challenges, and Opportunities.Mol Pharm. 2021 01 04; 18(1):1-17.MP
Physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) modeling has been extensively applied to quantitatively translate invitro data, predict the invivo performance, and ultimately support waivers of invivo clinical studies. In the area of biopharmaceutics and within the context of model-informed drug discovery and development (MID3), there is a rapidly growing interest in applying verified and validated mechanistic PBPK models to waive invivo clinical studies. However, the regulatory acceptance of PBPK analyses for biopharmaceutics and oral drug absorption applications, which is also referred to variously as "PBPK absorption modeling" [Zhang et al. CPT: Pharmacometrics Syst. Pharmacol. 2017, 6, 492], "physiologically based absorption modeling", or "physiologically based biopharmaceutics modeling" (PBBM), remains rather low [Kesisoglou et al. J. Pharm. Sci. 2016, 105, 2723] [Heimbach et al. AAPS J. 2019, 21, 29]. Despite considerable progress in the understanding of gastrointestinal (GI) physiology, invitro biopharmaceutic and in silico tools, PBPK models for oral absorption often suffer from an incomplete understanding of the physiology, overparameterization, and insufficient model validation and/or platform verification, all of which can represent limitations to their translatability and predictive performance. The complex interactions of drug substances and (bioenabling) formulations with the highly dynamic and heterogeneous environment of the GI tract in different age, ethnic, and genetic groups as well as disease states have not been yet fully elucidated, and they deserve further research. Along with advancements in the understanding of GI physiology and refinement of current or development of fully mechanistic in silico tools, we strongly believe that harmonization, interdisciplinary interaction, and enhancement of the translational link between invitro, in silico, and invivo will determine the future of PBBM. This Perspective provides an overview of the current status of PBBM, reflects on challenges and knowledge gaps, and discusses future opportunities around PBPK/PD models for oral absorption of small and large molecules to waive invivo clinical studies.