Effect of Metal Ions on Oxidation of Micropollutants by Ferrate(VI): Enhancing Role of FeIV Species.Environ Sci Technol. 2021 01 05; 55(1):623-633.ES
This paper investigated the oxidation of recalcitrant micropollutants [i.e., atenolol (ATL), flumequine, aspartame, and diatrizoic acid] by combining ferrate(VI) (FeVIO42-, FeVI) with a series of metal ions [i.e., Fe(III), Ca(II), Al(III), Sc(III), Co(II), and Ni(II)]. An addition of Fe(III) to FeVI enhanced the oxidation of micropollutants compared solely to FeVI. The enhanced oxidation of studied micropollutants increased with increasing [Fe(III)]/[FeVI] to 2.0. The complete conversion of phenyl methyl sulfoxide (PMSO), as a probe agent, to phenyl methyl sulfone (PMSO2) by the FeVI-Fe(III) system suggested that the highly reactive intermediate FeIV/FeV species causes the increased oxidation of all four micropollutants. A kinetic modeling of the oxidation of ATL demonstrated that the major species causing the increase in ATL removal was FeIV, which had an estimated rate constant as (6.3 ± 0.2) × 104 M-1 s-1, much higher than that of FeVI [(5.0 ± 0.4) × 10-1 M-1 s-1]. Mechanisms of the formed oxidation products of ATL by FeIV, which included aromatic and/or benzylic oxidation, are delineated. The presence of natural organic matter significantly inhibited the removal of four pollutants by the FeVI-Fe(III) system. The enhanced effect of the FeVI-Fe(III) system was also seen in the oxidation of the micropollutants in river water and lake water.