Changes in phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities during the whole wheat bread-making process.Food Chem. 2021 May 30; 345:128851.FC
Health benefits of whole wheat products are partially attributed to their unique phenolic profiles. This study investigated the effect of bread-making processes on the phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of four different varieties of hard red winter wheat. The fermentation process generally increased soluble phenolic content, flavonoid content, antioxidant activities, and soluble ferulic acid of whole wheat products. The baking process increased the soluble phenolic content and antioxidant activities. Some phenolic acids were incorporated into Maillard reaction products during baking. For the insoluble fraction, fermentation and baking slightly increased phenolic content, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activities of certain wheat varieties. Ferulic acid and isomers of di-ferulic acid (DFA) were not significantly affected by the baking process. Overall, the bread-making process demonstrated positive effects on the potential health benefits of whole wheat products.