Tubo-Ovarian Abscess in Non-Sexually Active Adolescent Girls: A Case Series and Literature Review.J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2020 Dec 16 [Online ahead of print]JP
We investigated risk factors and common causes of tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA) in non-sexually active females in order to aid in earlier diagnosis, treatment, and improved outcomes.
This is a retrospective observational case series of all non-sexually active females younger than age 25 years who were diagnosed with TOA. Review of the existing literature was also performed.
Academic tertiary care children's hospital.
Ten patients meeting study inclusion criteria were identified for the study, and 33 other patients were identified in the literature.
Average age at time of diagnosis was 14 years. Average body mass index was 24 kg/m2. Most presented with abdominal pain, often associated with fevers, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Seven of 10 patients were treated surgically with pelvic washout (4 primarily and 3 after failing empiric antibiotic therapy). Most frequently, anaerobic gut flora were isolated on culture. All patients received broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics, and were then discharged on a course of doxycycline and metronidazole or clindamycin. Three patients required additional admissions and multiple rounds of antibiotics due to persistent symptoms. The average length of stay was 3 days for patients treated with antibiotics only and 6 days for patients requiring surgical intervention. Six patients had complete resolution of symptoms and improvement on ultrasound within 2-4 weeks. The remainder were lost to follow-up.
These cases, in conjunction with previous case reports, emphasize the importance of considering TOA in patients with concerning imaging or examination findings despite lack of sexual activity. Given the large proportion of cases attributable to anaerobic gut flora, treatment with antibiotics with adequate anaerobic coverage is recommended. Surgical drainage is not always necessary, but is often needed for diagnostic purposes or in patients not clinically improving with conservative measures.