Leaves of Cleome amblyocarpa Barr. And Murb. And Cleome arabica L.: Assessment of nutritional composition and chemical profile (LC-ESI-MS/MS), anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of their extracts.J Ethnopharmacol. 2021 Apr 06; 269:113739.JE
The Cleomaceae family is known for its richness in secondary metabolites and different Cleome species are used in folk medicine. Cleome amblyocarpa and Cleome arabica are medicinal herbs used in Tunisia and other North Africa countries to treat various diseases such as diabetes, rheumatism, colic, pain and digestive disorders.
AIM OF THE STUDY
To our knowledge, few data are available about the nutritional value, phytochemical components and biological effects of C. arabica and C. amblyocarpa cultivated in Tunisia. For this reason, the present survey aimed to determine the nutritional value, bioactive compounds and pharmacological properties of the leaves of these two species of Cleome.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
To characterize and determine the bioactive compounds in both extracts of leaves of Cleome species, ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was used. The various nutritional parameters were analyzed, in particular the amounts of protein, carbohydrates, ash, fiber, and total lipids. Vitamin E and fatty acid profiles were also evaluated by HPLC-DAD-FLD and GC-FID, respectively. The acute toxic effects of leaf extracts in mice at concentrations of 100, 500 and 800 mg/kg body weight have been investigated. The anti-inflammatory effect of leaves extracts was examined by means of the in vitro and in vivo models. The in vivo anti-inflammatory test was assessed by means of the carrageenan induced paw edema in rats. For the in vitro anti-inflammatory assay, the red blood cells membrane stabilization and protein denaturation methods were employed. The analgesic effect of hydroalcoholic extracts of leaves was also assessed by acetic acid induced writhing model in mice.
The phytochemical composition and the nutritional values of the leaves of C. amblyocarpa and C. arabica were determined. Our results revealed that the leaves of C. amblyocarpa are rich in flavonoids and glucosinolates. On the other hand, these latter metabolites are not present in the C. arabica extract and the leaves are characterized by the presence of flavones, methoxyflavones and their glycosides. Our findings revealed that the leaves of the two species contain a potential quantity of vitamins; proteins, carbohydrates and dietary fiber, and their hydroalcoholic extracts indicated substantial anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities in all the tests. Additionally, the data from the acute toxicity test proved that the leaf extracts did not cause any mortality or signs of toxicity in animals at doses up to 800 mg/kg CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained in this investigation demonstrated that the leaves of C. arabica and C. amblyocarpa are a valuable source of nutrients and active substances. Our observations support the traditional utilize of these two Cleome species for the treatment of painful diseases and as a source of natural anti-inflammatory agents.