Success or failure? Pathologists persecuted under National Socialism and their careers after emigrating to the United States.Pathol Res Pract. 2021 Feb; 218:153315.PR
This study examines the biographies of pathologists persecuted by the National Socialists after their emigration from the German Reich to the USA. The work is based on primary sources from various archives and a systematic evaluation of secondary literature on the persons concerned. The study yields five central results: (1) Out of 118 identified persecuted pathologists, a total of 91 persons left the German Reich, 60 of them demonstrably to the USA. (2) The majority of the pathologists immigrated to the USA between 1938 and 1941. (3) A good two thirds of the pathologists were (again) employed in the USA as university teachers, the majority in the leading position of Full Professor. (4) The preferred area of employment was the East Coast of the USA. (5) The labor market situation was particularly favorable for specialized pathologists. It can be concluded that the majority of the emigrated pathologists studied succeeded in continuing or even expanding their professional careers in the USA, with existing academic networks playing a noticeable role. Pathology thus occupies a special position in the context of the migration history of persecuted physicians under National Socialism.