A new era for monoclonal antibodies with applications in neurology (Review).Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jan; 21(1):86.ET
Medical research continues to focus on developing specific treatment strategies, including biological products that are effective and have a good safety profile. Due to their novelty, an updated overall view is offered on some neurological diseases which benefit from monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), for better treatment in clinical decisions. An extensive literature review was performed using PubMed with the following search terms: 'monoclonal antibodies' and 'history of monoclonal antibodies' and 'monoclonal antibodies in neurology'. The following information was collected: the era before the discoveries of mAbs, the stage of implementation of biotechnologies for mAbs, and the clinical trials submitted at https://clinicaltrials.gov/ with patients suffering from neurological diseases treated with mAbs. Since 2004, mAbs have been used to treat several neurological diseases, yielding new therapeutic perspectives: natalizumab, alemtuzumab and ocrelizumab for multiple sclerosis, eculizumab for myasthenia gravis, erenumab and frenazumab for migraine, galcanezumab for migraine and cluster headache, eculizumab for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. As in other cases, drug repurposing is applied to monoclonal antibodies, saving time and money. These innovative therapies are more effective and can treat previously untreatable diseases. As better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of neurological diseases is gained, additional mAbs are expected to be developed at a lower cost and with better safety profile compared with current treatment options.