Preliminary validation of the use of IgG antibody response to Anopheles gSG6-p1 salivary peptide to assess human exposure to malaria vector bites in two endemic areas of Cameroon in Central Africa.PLoS One. 2020; 15(12):e0242510.Plos
The specific immune response to the Anopheles salivary peptide could be a pertinent and complementary tool to assess the risk of malaria transmission and the effectiveness of vector control strategies. This study aimed to obtain first reliable data on the current state of the Anopheles gSG6-P1 biomarker for assess the level of exposure to Anopheles bites in high malaria endemic areas in Cameroon. Blood smears were collected from people living in the neighborhoods of Youpwe (suburban area, continental) and Manoka (rural area, Island), both areas in the coastal region of Cameroon. Malaria infection was determined using thick blood smear microscopy, whereas the level of specific IgG response to gSG-P1 peptide was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay from the dried blood spots. Of 266 (153 from Youpwe, 113 from Manoka) malaria endemic residents (mean age: 22.8±19.8 years, age range: 6 months-94 years, male/female sex ratio: 1/1.2, with Manoka mean age: 23.71±20.53, male/female sex ratio:1/1.13 and Youpwe mean age: 22.12±19.22, male/female sex ratio 1/0.67) randomly included in the study, Plasmodium infection prevalence was significantly higher in Manoka than in Youpwe (64.6% vs 12,4%, p = 0.0001). The anti-gSG6-P1 IgG response showed a high inter-individual heterogeneity and was significantly higher among individuals from Manoka than those from Youpwe (p = 0.023). Malaria infected individuals presented a higher anti-gSG6-P1 IgG antibody response than non-infected (p = 0.0004). No significant difference in the level of specific IgG response to gSG-P1 was observed according to long lasting insecticidal nets use. Taken together, the data revealed that human IgG antibody response to Anopheles gSG-P1 salivary peptide could be also used to assess human exposure to malaria vectors in Central African region. This finding strengthens the relevance of this candidate biomarker to be used for measuring human exposure to malaria vectors worldwide.