Intestinal parasitic infections and associated factors among people living with HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.PLoS One. 2020; 15(12):e0244887.Plos
Intestinal parasitic infections are major public health problems throughout the world, particularly in people living with HIV/AIDS. People living with HIV/AIDS are vulnerable groups for a variety of diseases, hence they are easily affected by opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasites due to the weakening of their immunity. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence and factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections among people living with HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia.
Articles were identified through search engines in the online electronic databases PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, HINARI, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and reference lists of previous studies following the PRISMA Protocol. Studies conducted between 2003 and 2020 with English language were included in this study. This review included papers with having high-quality NOS scores. Meta-analysis was computed using STATA version 11 software. Heterogeneity was assessed using the Cochrane Q-test and I2 test statistics. Subgroup and sensitivity analysis was employed with evidence of heterogeneity. Publication bias was determined using the funnel plot and Egger's regression test statistic.
This study included a total of twenty-two cross-sectional studies with 5,833 study participants. The mean age of the study participants was 35 years old. The pooled prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among people living with HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia was 39.15% (95%CI: 32.34, 45.95). The pooled prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among people living with HIV/AIDS who had taking ART and who had not to start ART was found to be 28.27% (95%CI 22.47, 34.06) and 41.63% (95%CI: 28.75, 54.52) respectively. Unavailability of latrine (AOR: 4.87, (95% CI: 2.39, 9.92)), CD4+ T cell count <200cells/μl ((AOR: 3.53, (95%CI: 1.98, 6.27)), and having a history of diarrhea (AOR: 4.79 (95%CI: 1.53, 14.99) were factors significantly associated with intestinal parasitic infections.
In this study, the overall pooled prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV/AIDS patients in Ethiopia was relatively high. CD4+ T-cell count <200cells/μl, unavailability of a latrine, and history of diarrhea were significantly associated with intestinal parasitic infections. Therefore, the policymakers and health care professionals could give special attention to the presence of latrines, early detection and treatment of intestinal parasitic infections, and early initiation of ART drugs.