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Analysis of viral load in different specimen types and serum antibody levels of COVID-19 patients.
J Transl Med. 2021 01 07; 19(1):30.JT

Abstract

BACKGROUND

COVID-19 has caused a global pandemic and the death toll is increasing. However, there is no definitive information regarding the type of clinical specimens that is the best for SARS-CoV-2 detection, the antibody levels in patients with different duration of disease, and the relationship between antibody level and viral load.

METHODS

Nasopharyngeal swabs, anal swabs, saliva, blood, and urine specimens were collected from patients with a course of disease ranging from 7 to 69 days. Viral load in different specimen types was measured using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). Meanwhile, anti-nucleocapsid protein (anti-N) IgM and IgG antibodies and anti-spike protein receptor-binding domain (anti-S-RBD) IgG antibody in all serum samples were tested using ELISA.

RESULTS

The positive detection rate in nasopharyngeal swab was the highest (54.05%), followed by anal swab (24.32%), and the positive detection rate in saliva, blood, and urine was 16.22%, 10.81%, and 5.41%, respectively. However, some patients with negative nasopharyngeal swabs had other specimens tested positive. There was no significant correlation between antibody level and days after symptoms onset or viral load.

CONCLUSIONS

Other specimens could be positive in patients with negative nasopharyngeal swabs, suggesting that for patients in the recovery period, specimens other than nasopharyngeal swabs should also be tested to avoid false negative results, and anal swabs are recommended. The antibody level had no correlation with days after symptoms onset or the viral load of nasopharyngeal swabs, suggesting that the antibody level may also be affected by other factors.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Chengdu, 610052, Sichuan, People's Republic of China. Key Laboratory of Transfusion Adverse Reactions, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Chengdu, 610052, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, 30 Shuangqing Road, Beijing, 100084, People's Republic of China.Department of Aviation Disease, Naval Medical Center of PLA, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200052, People's Republic of China. The Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Hubei Province, Guanggu District, Wuhan, 430070, Hubei, People's Republic of China.Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Chengdu, 610052, Sichuan, People's Republic of China. Key Laboratory of Transfusion Adverse Reactions, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Chengdu, 610052, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.Department of Biophysics, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200433, People's Republic of China.Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, 30 Shuangqing Road, Beijing, 100084, People's Republic of China.Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Chengdu, 610052, Sichuan, People's Republic of China. Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032, People's Republic of China.The Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Hubei Province, Guanggu District, Wuhan, 430070, Hubei, People's Republic of China. Department of Clinical Laboratory Science of NO. 909 Hospital of PLA Joint Support Force, Zhangzhou, 363000, People's Republic of China.The Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Hubei Province, Guanggu District, Wuhan, 430070, Hubei, People's Republic of China. Department of Clinical Laboratory Science of NO. 910 Hospital of PLA Joint Support Force, Quanzhou, 362000, People's Republic of China.Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Chengdu, 610052, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Chengdu, 610052, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Chengdu, 610052, Sichuan, People's Republic of China. Key Laboratory of Transfusion Adverse Reactions, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Chengdu, 610052, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Chengdu, 610052, Sichuan, People's Republic of China. Key Laboratory of Transfusion Adverse Reactions, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Chengdu, 610052, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Chengdu, 610052, Sichuan, People's Republic of China. Key Laboratory of Transfusion Adverse Reactions, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Chengdu, 610052, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Chengdu, 610052, Sichuan, People's Republic of China. Key Laboratory of Transfusion Adverse Reactions, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Chengdu, 610052, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.The Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Hubei Province, Guanggu District, Wuhan, 430070, Hubei, People's Republic of China. zhangweismmu@126.com. Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital, Second Military Medical University, 168# Changhai Rd, Shanghai, 200433, People's Republic of China. zhangweismmu@126.com.Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, 30 Shuangqing Road, Beijing, 100084, People's Republic of China. yongguo@tsinghua.edu.cn.Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Chengdu, 610052, Sichuan, People's Republic of China. liuz@ibt.pumc.edu.cn. Key Laboratory of Transfusion Adverse Reactions, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Chengdu, 610052, Sichuan, People's Republic of China. liuz@ibt.pumc.edu.cn.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33413461

Citation

Li, Ling, et al. "Analysis of Viral Load in Different Specimen Types and Serum Antibody Levels of COVID-19 Patients." Journal of Translational Medicine, vol. 19, no. 1, 2021, p. 30.
Li L, Tan C, Zeng J, et al. Analysis of viral load in different specimen types and serum antibody levels of COVID-19 patients. J Transl Med. 2021;19(1):30.
Li, L., Tan, C., Zeng, J., Luo, C., Hu, S., Peng, Y., Li, W., Xie, Z., Ling, Y., Zhang, X., Deng, E., Xu, H., Wang, J., Xie, Y., Zhou, Y., Zhang, W., Guo, Y., & Liu, Z. (2021). Analysis of viral load in different specimen types and serum antibody levels of COVID-19 patients. Journal of Translational Medicine, 19(1), 30. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12967-020-02693-2
Li L, et al. Analysis of Viral Load in Different Specimen Types and Serum Antibody Levels of COVID-19 Patients. J Transl Med. 2021 01 7;19(1):30. PubMed PMID: 33413461.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Analysis of viral load in different specimen types and serum antibody levels of COVID-19 patients. AU - Li,Ling, AU - Tan,Chianru, AU - Zeng,Jia, AU - Luo,Chen, AU - Hu,Shi, AU - Peng,Yanke, AU - Li,Wenjuan, AU - Xie,Zhixiong, AU - Ling,Yueming, AU - Zhang,Xuejun, AU - Deng,E, AU - Xu,Haixia, AU - Wang,Jue, AU - Xie,Yudi, AU - Zhou,Yaling, AU - Zhang,Wei, AU - Guo,Yong, AU - Liu,Zhong, Y1 - 2021/01/07/ PY - 2020/10/17/received PY - 2020/12/29/accepted PY - 2021/1/8/entrez PY - 2021/1/9/pubmed PY - 2021/1/15/medline KW - COVID-19 KW - Droplet digital PCR KW - Nasopharyngeal swab KW - Viral load SP - 30 EP - 30 JF - Journal of translational medicine JO - J Transl Med VL - 19 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has caused a global pandemic and the death toll is increasing. However, there is no definitive information regarding the type of clinical specimens that is the best for SARS-CoV-2 detection, the antibody levels in patients with different duration of disease, and the relationship between antibody level and viral load. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs, anal swabs, saliva, blood, and urine specimens were collected from patients with a course of disease ranging from 7 to 69 days. Viral load in different specimen types was measured using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). Meanwhile, anti-nucleocapsid protein (anti-N) IgM and IgG antibodies and anti-spike protein receptor-binding domain (anti-S-RBD) IgG antibody in all serum samples were tested using ELISA. RESULTS: The positive detection rate in nasopharyngeal swab was the highest (54.05%), followed by anal swab (24.32%), and the positive detection rate in saliva, blood, and urine was 16.22%, 10.81%, and 5.41%, respectively. However, some patients with negative nasopharyngeal swabs had other specimens tested positive. There was no significant correlation between antibody level and days after symptoms onset or viral load. CONCLUSIONS: Other specimens could be positive in patients with negative nasopharyngeal swabs, suggesting that for patients in the recovery period, specimens other than nasopharyngeal swabs should also be tested to avoid false negative results, and anal swabs are recommended. The antibody level had no correlation with days after symptoms onset or the viral load of nasopharyngeal swabs, suggesting that the antibody level may also be affected by other factors. SN - 1479-5876 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33413461/Analysis_of_viral_load_in_different_specimen_types_and_serum_antibody_levels_of_COVID_19_patients_ L2 - https://translational-medicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12967-020-02693-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -