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Impact of COVID-19 lockdown on ambient air quality in megacities of India and implication for air pollution control strategies.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2021 May; 28(17):21621-21632.ES

Abstract

The impact of restrictions during various phases of COVID-19 lockdown on daily mean PM2.5 concentration in five Indian megacities (New Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata, Mumbai, and Hyderabad) was studied. The impact was studied for pre-lockdown (1st Mar-24th Mar 2020), lockdown (25th Mar-31st May 2020), and unlocking (1st Jun-31st Aug 2020) phases. The lockdown period comprises 4 lockdown phases with distinct measures, whereas the unlocking period had 3 phases. PM2.5 concentration reduced significantly in all megacities and met the national standards during the lockdown period. The maximum reduction in PM2.5 level was observed in Kolkata (62%), followed by Mumbai (49%), Chennai (34%), and New Delhi (26%) during the lockdown period. Comparatively, Hyderabad exhibited a smaller reduction in PM2.5 concentration, i.e., 10%. The average PM2.5 levels during the lockdown in the peak hour (i.e., 07:00-11:00 h) in New Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata, Mumbai, and Hyderabad decreased by 21.3%, 48.5%, 63.4%, 56.4%, and 23.8%, respectively, compared to those before lockdown period. During the unlocking period, except for Chennai, all megacities showed a reduction in average PM2.5 levels compared to concentrations in the lockdown period, but these reductions were mainly linked with monsoon rains in India. The current study provided an opportunity to study air pollution in the absence of major anthropogenic activities and during limited activities in monsoon season having an ecological design. The study reports a new baseline of PM2.5, except for monsoon, and explores this knowledge to plan future air pollution reduction strategies. The study also discusses how this new learning of knowledge could strengthen air pollution control policies for better air quality and sustainability.Graphical abstract.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Community Medicine and School of Public Health, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, 160012, India. khaiwal@yahoo.com.Department of Environment Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh, 160014, India.Department of Environment Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh, 160014, India. National Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Gadanki, Chandigarh, 517502, India.National Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Gadanki, Chandigarh, 517502, India.Department of Environment Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh, 160014, India.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33415615

Citation

Ravindra, Khaiwal, et al. "Impact of COVID-19 Lockdown On Ambient Air Quality in Megacities of India and Implication for Air Pollution Control Strategies." Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, vol. 28, no. 17, 2021, pp. 21621-21632.
Ravindra K, Singh T, Biswal A, et al. Impact of COVID-19 lockdown on ambient air quality in megacities of India and implication for air pollution control strategies. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2021;28(17):21621-21632.
Ravindra, K., Singh, T., Biswal, A., Singh, V., & Mor, S. (2021). Impact of COVID-19 lockdown on ambient air quality in megacities of India and implication for air pollution control strategies. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 28(17), 21621-21632. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11808-7
Ravindra K, et al. Impact of COVID-19 Lockdown On Ambient Air Quality in Megacities of India and Implication for Air Pollution Control Strategies. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2021;28(17):21621-21632. PubMed PMID: 33415615.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Impact of COVID-19 lockdown on ambient air quality in megacities of India and implication for air pollution control strategies. AU - Ravindra,Khaiwal, AU - Singh,Tanbir, AU - Biswal,Akash, AU - Singh,Vikas, AU - Mor,Suman, Y1 - 2021/01/07/ PY - 2020/06/30/received PY - 2020/11/20/accepted PY - 2021/1/9/pubmed PY - 2021/5/13/medline PY - 2021/1/8/entrez KW - Air quality KW - COVID-19 KW - Coronavirus KW - Lockdown KW - Megacities KW - PM2.5 SP - 21621 EP - 21632 JF - Environmental science and pollution research international JO - Environ Sci Pollut Res Int VL - 28 IS - 17 N2 - The impact of restrictions during various phases of COVID-19 lockdown on daily mean PM2.5 concentration in five Indian megacities (New Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata, Mumbai, and Hyderabad) was studied. The impact was studied for pre-lockdown (1st Mar-24th Mar 2020), lockdown (25th Mar-31st May 2020), and unlocking (1st Jun-31st Aug 2020) phases. The lockdown period comprises 4 lockdown phases with distinct measures, whereas the unlocking period had 3 phases. PM2.5 concentration reduced significantly in all megacities and met the national standards during the lockdown period. The maximum reduction in PM2.5 level was observed in Kolkata (62%), followed by Mumbai (49%), Chennai (34%), and New Delhi (26%) during the lockdown period. Comparatively, Hyderabad exhibited a smaller reduction in PM2.5 concentration, i.e., 10%. The average PM2.5 levels during the lockdown in the peak hour (i.e., 07:00-11:00 h) in New Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata, Mumbai, and Hyderabad decreased by 21.3%, 48.5%, 63.4%, 56.4%, and 23.8%, respectively, compared to those before lockdown period. During the unlocking period, except for Chennai, all megacities showed a reduction in average PM2.5 levels compared to concentrations in the lockdown period, but these reductions were mainly linked with monsoon rains in India. The current study provided an opportunity to study air pollution in the absence of major anthropogenic activities and during limited activities in monsoon season having an ecological design. The study reports a new baseline of PM2.5, except for monsoon, and explores this knowledge to plan future air pollution reduction strategies. The study also discusses how this new learning of knowledge could strengthen air pollution control policies for better air quality and sustainability.Graphical abstract. SN - 1614-7499 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33415615/Impact_of_COVID_19_lockdown_on_ambient_air_quality_in_megacities_of_India_and_implication_for_air_pollution_control_strategies_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11808-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -