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Meningococcal carriage among Hajj pilgrims, risk factors for carriage and records of vaccination: a study of pilgrims to Mecca.
Trop Med Int Health. 2021 04; 26(4):453-461.TM

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The Saudi government requires that all pilgrims receive a quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine at least 10 days before the Hajj. We conducted a study to determine the uptake of meningococcal vaccine and antibiotic use. We also investigated risk factors of meningococcal carriage and carriage of Neisseria meningitidis pathogenic serogroups A, C, W and Y.

METHODS

A cross-sectional oropharyngeal carriage survey was conducted in 2973 Hajj pilgrims in September 2017. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) assay was used to identify N. meningitidis from the oropharyngeal swabs. A questionnaire investigated potential risk factors for carriage of N. meningitidis.

RESULTS

Two thousand two hundred forty nine oropharyngeal swabs were obtained. The overall prevalence of carriage of N. meningitidis was 4.6% (95% CI: 3.4%-6%). Carriage of pathogenic serogroups was not associated significantly with any of the meningococcal risk factors evaluated. 77% of pilgrims were vaccinated but 22.58 % said they were carrying unofficial vaccination cards.

CONCLUSION

Carriage of serogroups A, C, W and Y was not significantly associated with any of the risk factors investigated. Almost a quarter of pilgrims were unlikely to have been vaccinated, highlighting a need to strengthen compliance with the current policy of vaccination to prevent meningococcal disease outbreaks during and after the Hajj.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.Department of Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.Department of Disease Control, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.Chatham House Centre on Global Health Security, London, UK. Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.Department of Population Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK. Department of Global Health, Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.Preventive Health, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal-Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal-Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Global Institution for Collaborative Research and Education, Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.Department of Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.Department of Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33415766

Citation

Alasmari, Abrar, et al. "Meningococcal Carriage Among Hajj Pilgrims, Risk Factors for Carriage and Records of Vaccination: a Study of Pilgrims to Mecca." Tropical Medicine & International Health : TM & IH, vol. 26, no. 4, 2021, pp. 453-461.
Alasmari A, Houghton J, Greenwood B, et al. Meningococcal carriage among Hajj pilgrims, risk factors for carriage and records of vaccination: a study of pilgrims to Mecca. Trop Med Int Health. 2021;26(4):453-461.
Alasmari, A., Houghton, J., Greenwood, B., Heymann, D., Edwards, P., Larson, H., Assiri, A., Ben-Rached, F., Pain, A., Behrens, R., & Bustinduy, A. (2021). Meningococcal carriage among Hajj pilgrims, risk factors for carriage and records of vaccination: a study of pilgrims to Mecca. Tropical Medicine & International Health : TM & IH, 26(4), 453-461. https://doi.org/10.1111/tmi.13546
Alasmari A, et al. Meningococcal Carriage Among Hajj Pilgrims, Risk Factors for Carriage and Records of Vaccination: a Study of Pilgrims to Mecca. Trop Med Int Health. 2021;26(4):453-461. PubMed PMID: 33415766.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Meningococcal carriage among Hajj pilgrims, risk factors for carriage and records of vaccination: a study of pilgrims to Mecca. AU - Alasmari,Abrar, AU - Houghton,Joanna, AU - Greenwood,Brian, AU - Heymann,David, AU - Edwards,Phil, AU - Larson,Heidi, AU - Assiri,Abdullah, AU - Ben-Rached,Fathia, AU - Pain,Arnab, AU - Behrens,Ron, AU - Bustinduy,Amaya, Y1 - 2021/01/31/ PY - 2021/1/9/pubmed PY - 2021/7/31/medline PY - 2021/1/8/entrez KW - Neisseria meningitides KW - Hajj KW - antibiotic KW - meningococcal KW - pharyngeal carriage KW - vaccination SP - 453 EP - 461 JF - Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH JO - Trop Med Int Health VL - 26 IS - 4 N2 - OBJECTIVE: The Saudi government requires that all pilgrims receive a quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine at least 10 days before the Hajj. We conducted a study to determine the uptake of meningococcal vaccine and antibiotic use. We also investigated risk factors of meningococcal carriage and carriage of Neisseria meningitidis pathogenic serogroups A, C, W and Y. METHODS: A cross-sectional oropharyngeal carriage survey was conducted in 2973 Hajj pilgrims in September 2017. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) assay was used to identify N. meningitidis from the oropharyngeal swabs. A questionnaire investigated potential risk factors for carriage of N. meningitidis. RESULTS: Two thousand two hundred forty nine oropharyngeal swabs were obtained. The overall prevalence of carriage of N. meningitidis was 4.6% (95% CI: 3.4%-6%). Carriage of pathogenic serogroups was not associated significantly with any of the meningococcal risk factors evaluated. 77% of pilgrims were vaccinated but 22.58 % said they were carrying unofficial vaccination cards. CONCLUSION: Carriage of serogroups A, C, W and Y was not significantly associated with any of the risk factors investigated. Almost a quarter of pilgrims were unlikely to have been vaccinated, highlighting a need to strengthen compliance with the current policy of vaccination to prevent meningococcal disease outbreaks during and after the Hajj. SN - 1365-3156 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33415766/Meningococcal_carriage_among_Hajj_pilgrims_risk_factors_for_carriage_and_records_of_vaccination:_a_study_of_pilgrims_to_Mecca_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/tmi.13546 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -