The immune response and immune evasion characteristics in SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2: Vaccine design strategies.Int Immunopharmacol. 2021 Mar; 92:107051.II
The worldwide outbreak of SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 as a novel human coronavirus, was the worrying news at the beginning of 2020. Since its emergence complicated more than 870,000 individuals and led to more than 43,000 deaths worldwide. Considering to the potential threat of a pandemic and transmission severity of it, there is an urgent need to evaluate and realize this new virus's structure and behavior and the immunopathology of this disease to find potential therapeutic protocols and to design and develop effective vaccines. This disease is able to agitate the response of the immune system in the infected patients, so ARDS, as a common consequence of immunopathological events for infections with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2, could be the main reason for death. Here, we summarized the immune response and immune evasion characteristics in SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 and therapeutic and prophylactic strategies with a focus on vaccine development and its challenges.