Clinical analysis of a patient simultaneously positive for antibodies of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor: A case report.Medicine (Baltimore). 2021 Jan 08; 100(1):e24234.M
Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody (MOG-Ab) disease (MOG-AD) is a type of demyelinating disease of the central nervous system characterized by a high frequency of optic neuritis (ON) attacks. anti-Nmethyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis (anti-NMDARe) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by memory deficits, conscious disturbance, and seizures. Cases of simultaneous occurrence of MOG-Ab and anti-NMDARe antibody (anti-NMDARe-Ab) are rarely reported and could be mistaken for overlapping MOG-antibody disease (MOG-AD) and NMDARe. The diagnosis of such patients is challenging.
We report the case of a 37-year-old man who presented with recurrent headaches for 3 months and worsening symptoms over 2 weeks. He had a history of ON. He had a generalized seizure after 7 days in the hospital.
Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cerebrospinal fluid tests showed no apparent abnormalities. Repeat MRI showed slight lesions 7 days later, and cerebrospinal fluid tests showed the simultaneous occurrence of MOG-Ab and anti-NMDARe-Ab.
He completely recovered after treatment with low doses of oral corticosteroids.
Two months and 2 years follow-up showed that his condition was stable.
The co-occurrence of MOG-Ab and anti-NMDAR-Ab does not indicate the co-occurrence of MOG-AD and anti-NMDARe. Laboratory findings should be combined with the clinical features to achieve an accurate and suitable diagnosis.