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Demographic risk factors for COVID-19 infection, severity, ICU admission and death: a meta-analysis of 59 studies.
BMJ Open. 2021 01 11; 11(1):e044640.BO

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

We aimed to describe the associations of age and sex with the risk of COVID-19 in different severity stages ranging from infection to death.

DESIGN

Systematic review and meta-analysis.

DATA SOURCES

PubMed and Embase through 4 May 2020.

STUDY SELECTION

We considered cohort and case-control studies that evaluated differences in age and sex on the risk of COVID-19 infection, disease severity, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and death.

DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS

We screened and included studies using standardised electronic data extraction forms and we pooled data from published studies and data acquired by contacting authors using random effects meta-analysis. We assessed the risk of bias using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale.

RESULTS

We screened 11.550 titles and included 59 studies comprising 36.470 patients in the analyses. The methodological quality of the included papers was high (8.2 out of 9). Men had a higher risk for infection with COVID-19 than women (relative risk (RR) 1.08, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.12). When infected, they also had a higher risk for severe COVID-19 disease (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.27), a higher need for intensive care (RR 1.38, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.74) and a higher risk of death (RR 1.50, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.91). The analyses also showed that patients aged 70 years and above have a higher infection risk (RR 1.65, 95% CI 1.50 to 1.81), a higher risk for severe COVID-19 disease (RR 2.05, 95% CI 1.27 to 3.32), a higher need for intensive care (RR 2.70, 95% CI 1.59 to 4.60) and a higher risk of death once infected (RR 3.61, 95% CI 2.70 to 4.84) compared with patients younger than 70 years.

CONCLUSIONS

Meta-analyses on 59 studies comprising 36.470 patients showed that men and patients aged 70 and above have a higher risk for COVID-19 infection, severe disease, ICU admission and death.

PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER

CRD42020180085.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Orthopaedics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands b.g.c.w.pijls@lumc.nl.Department of Methodology and Statistics, Care and Public Health Research Institute (CAPHRI), Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.Department of Educational Research and Development, School of Health Professions Education, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.Department of General Practice, Care and Public Health Research Institute (CAPHRI), Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.Amsterdam University Medical Center, location VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.Maastricht University Library, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.School of Mental Health and Neuroscience (MHeNS), Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.Department of Research and Development, The Netherlands Comprehensive Cancer Organisation, Utrecht, The Netherlands.De Onderzoekerij, Leiden, The Netherlands.UCB Pharma B.V, Breda, The Netherlands.NUTRIM School of Translational Research in Metabolism, Care and Public Health Research Institute (CAPHRI), Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
Systematic Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33431495

Citation

Pijls, Bart G., et al. "Demographic Risk Factors for COVID-19 Infection, Severity, ICU Admission and Death: a Meta-analysis of 59 Studies." BMJ Open, vol. 11, no. 1, 2021, pp. e044640.
Pijls BG, Jolani S, Atherley A, et al. Demographic risk factors for COVID-19 infection, severity, ICU admission and death: a meta-analysis of 59 studies. BMJ Open. 2021;11(1):e044640.
Pijls, B. G., Jolani, S., Atherley, A., Derckx, R. T., Dijkstra, J. I. R., Franssen, G. H. L., Hendriks, S., Richters, A., Venemans-Jellema, A., Zalpuri, S., & Zeegers, M. P. (2021). Demographic risk factors for COVID-19 infection, severity, ICU admission and death: a meta-analysis of 59 studies. BMJ Open, 11(1), e044640. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-044640
Pijls BG, et al. Demographic Risk Factors for COVID-19 Infection, Severity, ICU Admission and Death: a Meta-analysis of 59 Studies. BMJ Open. 2021 01 11;11(1):e044640. PubMed PMID: 33431495.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Demographic risk factors for COVID-19 infection, severity, ICU admission and death: a meta-analysis of 59 studies. AU - Pijls,Bart G, AU - Jolani,Shahab, AU - Atherley,Anique, AU - Derckx,Raissa T, AU - Dijkstra,Janna I R, AU - Franssen,Gregor H L, AU - Hendriks,Stevie, AU - Richters,Anke, AU - Venemans-Jellema,Annemarie, AU - Zalpuri,Saurabh, AU - Zeegers,Maurice P, Y1 - 2021/01/11/ PY - 2021/1/12/entrez PY - 2021/1/13/pubmed PY - 2021/1/22/medline KW - COVID-19 KW - epidemiology KW - infectious diseases SP - e044640 EP - e044640 JF - BMJ open JO - BMJ Open VL - 11 IS - 1 N2 - OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the associations of age and sex with the risk of COVID-19 in different severity stages ranging from infection to death. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and Embase through 4 May 2020. STUDY SELECTION: We considered cohort and case-control studies that evaluated differences in age and sex on the risk of COVID-19 infection, disease severity, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and death. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: We screened and included studies using standardised electronic data extraction forms and we pooled data from published studies and data acquired by contacting authors using random effects meta-analysis. We assessed the risk of bias using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. RESULTS: We screened 11.550 titles and included 59 studies comprising 36.470 patients in the analyses. The methodological quality of the included papers was high (8.2 out of 9). Men had a higher risk for infection with COVID-19 than women (relative risk (RR) 1.08, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.12). When infected, they also had a higher risk for severe COVID-19 disease (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.27), a higher need for intensive care (RR 1.38, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.74) and a higher risk of death (RR 1.50, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.91). The analyses also showed that patients aged 70 years and above have a higher infection risk (RR 1.65, 95% CI 1.50 to 1.81), a higher risk for severe COVID-19 disease (RR 2.05, 95% CI 1.27 to 3.32), a higher need for intensive care (RR 2.70, 95% CI 1.59 to 4.60) and a higher risk of death once infected (RR 3.61, 95% CI 2.70 to 4.84) compared with patients younger than 70 years. CONCLUSIONS: Meta-analyses on 59 studies comprising 36.470 patients showed that men and patients aged 70 and above have a higher risk for COVID-19 infection, severe disease, ICU admission and death. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020180085. SN - 2044-6055 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33431495/Demographic_risk_factors_for_COVID_19_infection_severity_ICU_admission_and_death:_a_meta_analysis_of_59_studies_ L2 - https://bmjopen.bmj.com/lookup/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=33431495 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -