[Treatment of lumbar tuberculosis with percutaneous pedicle screw internal fixation and minimally invasive lateral small incisions lesion debridement and bone graft fusion via dilated channels].Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2021 Jan 15; 35(1):46-50.ZX
To explore the efficacy of percutaneous pedicle screw internal fixation and minimally invasive lateral small incisions lesion debridement and bone graft fusion via dilated channels in the treatment of lumbar tuberculosis.
The clinical data of 22 cases of lumbar tuberculosis treated with percutaneous pedicle screw internal fixation combined with dilated channels with minimally invasive lateral small incision lesion debridement and bone graft fusion between January 2016 and June 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 12 males and 10 females, with an average age of 47.5 years (range, 22-75 years). The affected segments were L 2, 3 in 5 cases, L 3, 4 in 8 cases, and L 4, 5 in 9 cases, with an average disease duration of 8.6 months (range, 4-14 months). Preoperative neurological function was classified according to the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA), with 3 cases of grade C, 9 cases of grade D, and 10 cases of grade E. The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative complications were recorded. At preoperation, 3 months after operation, and last follow-up, the C reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimen- tation rate (ESR) were tested to evaluate tuberculosis control; the pain visual analogue scale (VAS) score was used to evaluate the recovery of pain, and the Oswestry disability index (ODI) was used to evaluate the function recovery of the patient's lower back; the kyphosis Cobb angle was measured, and the loss of Cobb angle (the difference between the Cobb angle at last follow-up and 3 months after operation) was calculated. At last follow-up, the ASIA classification was used to evaluate the recovery of neurological function, and the effectiveness was evaluated according to the modified MacNab standard.
The operation time was 110-148 minutes (mean, 132.8 minutes) and the intraoperative blood loss was 70-110 mL (mean, 89.9 mL). Two patients experienced fat liquefaction of the incision and delayed healing; the incisions of the remaining patients healed by first intention. All patients were followed up 18-24 months, with an average of 21.3 months. All bone grafts achieved osseous fusion, the pedicle screws were fixed in reliable positions, without loosening, displacement, or broken rods. There was no recurrence of tuberculosis. The ESR, CRP, VAS scores, ODI scores, and kyphosis Cobb angle of the affected segment at 3 months after operation and last follow-up were significantly improved (P<0.05); there were no significant differences between at last follow-up and 3 months after operation (P>0.05), and the loss of Cobb angle was (0.6±0.5)°. The patient's neurological function recovered significantly. At last follow-up, the ASIA grades were classified into 1 case with grade C, 1 case with grade D, and 20 cases with grade E, which were significantly improved when compared with preoperative grading (Z=-3.066, P=0.002). According to the modified MacNab standard, 16 cases were excellent, 3 cases were good, 2 cases were fair, and 1 case was poor. The excellent and good rate was 86.4%.
Percutaneous pedicle screw internal fixation combined with dilated channels with minimally invasive lateral small incisions lesion debridement and bone graft fusion has the advantages of less bleeding, less trauma, and faster recovery, which is safe and effective in the treatment of lumbar tuberculosis.