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Evidence of Coronavirus (CoV) Pathogenesis and Emerging Pathogen SARS-CoV-2 in the Nervous System: A Review on Neurological Impairments and Manifestations.
J Mol Neurosci. 2021 Jan 19 [Online ahead of print]JM

Abstract

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an issue of global significance that has taken the lives of many across the world. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus responsible for its pathogenesis. The pulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 have been well described in the literature. Initially, it was thought to be limited to the respiratory system; however, we now recognize that COVID-19 also affects several other organs, including the nervous system. Two similar human coronaviruses (CoV) that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-1) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) are also known to cause disease in the nervous system. The neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection are growing rapidly, as evidenced by several reports. There are several mechanisms responsible for such manifestations in the nervous system. For instance, post-infectious immune-mediated processes, direct virus infection of the central nervous system (CNS), and virus-induced hyperinflammatory and hypercoagulable states are commonly involved. Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and its variants, dysfunction of taste and smell, and muscle injury are numerous examples of COVID-19 PNS (peripheral nervous system) disease. Likewise, hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, encephalitis, meningitis, encephalopathy acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, endothelialitis, and venous sinus thrombosis are some instances of COVID-19 CNS disease. Due to multifactorial and complicated pathogenic mechanisms, COVID-19 poses a large-scale threat to the whole nervous system. A complete understanding of SARS-CoV-2 neurological impairments is still lacking, but our knowledge base is rapidly expanding. Therefore, we anticipate that this comprehensive review will provide valuable insights and facilitate the work of neuroscientists in unfolding different neurological dimensions of COVID-19 and other CoV associated abnormalities.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biotechnology, School of Engineering & Technology (SET), Sharda University, Greater Noida, 201310, UP, India. nirajkumarjha2011@gmail.com.Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, PO Box - 17666, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, UAE.Department of Biotechnology, School of Engineering & Technology (SET), Sharda University, Greater Noida, 201310, UP, India.Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, India.School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Punjab, India.Priority Research Centre for Healthy Lungs, Hunter Medical Research Institute (HMRI), University of Newcastle, New Lambton Heights, Newcastle, NSW, 2305, Australia.Department of Life Sciences, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Bukit Jalil, 57000, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.School of Pharmacy, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jagatpura, Mahal Road, Jaipur, India.Department of Biotechnology, HIMT, CCS University, Greater Noida, UP, India.Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110007, India.Department of Orthopaedics, School of Medical Sciences and Research, Sharda University, UP, 201310, Greater Noida, India.School of Medical Sciences and Research, Sharda University, UP, 201310, Greater Noida, India.Research Associate, Orthopaedic Research Group, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad (IIMA), Gujarat, 380015, India.Amity Institute of Molecular Medicine and Stem Cell Research (AIMMSCR), Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, 201313, India.Department of Biological Sciences, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, G.D. Goenka University, G.D. Goenka Education City Sohna Gurugram Road, Haryana- 122103, India.Department of Applied Physics, School of Science, Aalto University, 00076, Espoo, Finland.Department of Applied Physics, School of Science, Aalto University, 00076, Espoo, Finland.Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGI Campus, Lucknow, 226014, UP, India. Indian Scientific Education and Technology Foundation, Lucknow, 226002, UP, India.Priority Research Centre for Healthy Lungs, Hunter Medical Research Institute (HMRI), University of Newcastle, New Lambton Heights, Newcastle, NSW, 2305, Australia. Discipline of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2007, Australia. School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shoolini University of Biotechnology and Management Sciences, Post box no. 9, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, 173229, India.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33464535

Citation

Jha, Niraj Kumar, et al. "Evidence of Coronavirus (CoV) Pathogenesis and Emerging Pathogen SARS-CoV-2 in the Nervous System: a Review On Neurological Impairments and Manifestations." Journal of Molecular Neuroscience : MN, 2021.
Jha NK, Ojha S, Jha SK, et al. Evidence of Coronavirus (CoV) Pathogenesis and Emerging Pathogen SARS-CoV-2 in the Nervous System: A Review on Neurological Impairments and Manifestations. J Mol Neurosci. 2021.
Jha, N. K., Ojha, S., Jha, S. K., Dureja, H., Singh, S. K., Shukla, S. D., Chellappan, D. K., Gupta, G., Bhardwaj, S., Kumar, N., Jeyaraman, M., Jain, R., Muthu, S., Kar, R., Kumar, D., Goswami, V. K., Ruokolainen, J., Kesari, K. K., Singh, S. K., & Dua, K. (2021). Evidence of Coronavirus (CoV) Pathogenesis and Emerging Pathogen SARS-CoV-2 in the Nervous System: A Review on Neurological Impairments and Manifestations. Journal of Molecular Neuroscience : MN. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12031-020-01767-6
Jha NK, et al. Evidence of Coronavirus (CoV) Pathogenesis and Emerging Pathogen SARS-CoV-2 in the Nervous System: a Review On Neurological Impairments and Manifestations. J Mol Neurosci. 2021 Jan 19; PubMed PMID: 33464535.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Evidence of Coronavirus (CoV) Pathogenesis and Emerging Pathogen SARS-CoV-2 in the Nervous System: A Review on Neurological Impairments and Manifestations. AU - Jha,Niraj Kumar, AU - Ojha,Shreesh, AU - Jha,Saurabh Kumar, AU - Dureja,Harish, AU - Singh,Sachin Kumar, AU - Shukla,Shakti D, AU - Chellappan,Dinesh Kumar, AU - Gupta,Gaurav, AU - Bhardwaj,Shanu, AU - Kumar,Neeraj, AU - Jeyaraman,Madhan, AU - Jain,Rashmi, AU - Muthu,Sathish, AU - Kar,Rohan, AU - Kumar,Dhruv, AU - Goswami,Vineet Kumar, AU - Ruokolainen,Janne, AU - Kesari,Kavindra Kumar, AU - Singh,Sandeep Kumar, AU - Dua,Kamal, Y1 - 2021/01/19/ PY - 2020/09/03/received PY - 2020/11/27/accepted PY - 2021/1/19/entrez PY - 2021/1/20/pubmed PY - 2021/1/20/medline KW - ACE2 KW - COVID-19 KW - Cerebrovascular disease KW - Coronavirus (CoV) KW - Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) KW - Multiple sclerosis KW - Nervous system KW - Neuropathogenesis KW - SARS-CoV-2 JF - Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN JO - J Mol Neurosci N2 - The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an issue of global significance that has taken the lives of many across the world. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus responsible for its pathogenesis. The pulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 have been well described in the literature. Initially, it was thought to be limited to the respiratory system; however, we now recognize that COVID-19 also affects several other organs, including the nervous system. Two similar human coronaviruses (CoV) that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-1) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) are also known to cause disease in the nervous system. The neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection are growing rapidly, as evidenced by several reports. There are several mechanisms responsible for such manifestations in the nervous system. For instance, post-infectious immune-mediated processes, direct virus infection of the central nervous system (CNS), and virus-induced hyperinflammatory and hypercoagulable states are commonly involved. Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and its variants, dysfunction of taste and smell, and muscle injury are numerous examples of COVID-19 PNS (peripheral nervous system) disease. Likewise, hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, encephalitis, meningitis, encephalopathy acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, endothelialitis, and venous sinus thrombosis are some instances of COVID-19 CNS disease. Due to multifactorial and complicated pathogenic mechanisms, COVID-19 poses a large-scale threat to the whole nervous system. A complete understanding of SARS-CoV-2 neurological impairments is still lacking, but our knowledge base is rapidly expanding. Therefore, we anticipate that this comprehensive review will provide valuable insights and facilitate the work of neuroscientists in unfolding different neurological dimensions of COVID-19 and other CoV associated abnormalities. SN - 1559-1166 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33464535/Evidence_of_Coronavirus__CoV__Pathogenesis_and_Emerging_Pathogen_SARS_CoV_2_in_the_Nervous_System:_A_Review_on_Neurological_Impairments_and_Manifestations_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12031-020-01767-6 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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