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A Neurotoxic Snake Venom without Phospholipase A2: Proteomics and Cross-Neutralization of the Venom from Senegalese Cobra, Naja senegalensis (Subgenus: Uraeus).
Toxins (Basel). 2021 01 14; 13(1)T

Abstract

The Senegalese cobra, Naja senegalensis, is a non-spitting cobra species newly erected from the Naja haje complex. Naja senegalensis causes neurotoxic envenomation in Western Africa but its venom properties remain underexplored. Applying a protein decomplexation proteomic approach, this study unveiled the unique complexity of the venom composition. Three-finger toxins constituted the major component, accounting for 75.91% of total venom proteins. Of these, cardiotoxin/cytotoxin (~53%) and alpha-neurotoxins (~23%) predominated in the venom proteome. Phospholipase A2, however, was not present in the venom, suggesting a unique snake venom phenotype found in this species. The venom, despite the absence of PLA2, is highly lethal with an intravenous LD50 of 0.39 µg/g in mice, consistent with the high abundance of alpha-neurotoxins (predominating long neurotoxins) in the venom. The hetero-specific VINS African Polyvalent Antivenom (VAPAV) was immunoreactive to the venom, implying conserved protein antigenicity in the venoms of N. senegalensis and N. haje. Furthermore, VAPAV was able to cross-neutralize the lethal effect of N. senegalensis venom but the potency was limited (0.59 mg venom completely neutralized per mL antivenom, or ~82 LD50 per ml of antivenom). The efficacy of antivenom should be further improved to optimize the treatment of cobra bite envenomation in Africa.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia.Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia.Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia.Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33466660

Citation

Wong, Kin Ying, et al. "A Neurotoxic Snake Venom Without Phospholipase A2: Proteomics and Cross-Neutralization of the Venom From Senegalese Cobra, Naja Senegalensis (Subgenus: Uraeus)." Toxins, vol. 13, no. 1, 2021.
Wong KY, Tan KY, Tan NH, et al. A Neurotoxic Snake Venom without Phospholipase A2: Proteomics and Cross-Neutralization of the Venom from Senegalese Cobra, Naja senegalensis (Subgenus: Uraeus). Toxins (Basel). 2021;13(1).
Wong, K. Y., Tan, K. Y., Tan, N. H., & Tan, C. H. (2021). A Neurotoxic Snake Venom without Phospholipase A2: Proteomics and Cross-Neutralization of the Venom from Senegalese Cobra, Naja senegalensis (Subgenus: Uraeus). Toxins, 13(1). https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13010060
Wong KY, et al. A Neurotoxic Snake Venom Without Phospholipase A2: Proteomics and Cross-Neutralization of the Venom From Senegalese Cobra, Naja Senegalensis (Subgenus: Uraeus). Toxins (Basel). 2021 01 14;13(1) PubMed PMID: 33466660.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A Neurotoxic Snake Venom without Phospholipase A2: Proteomics and Cross-Neutralization of the Venom from Senegalese Cobra, Naja senegalensis (Subgenus: Uraeus). AU - Wong,Kin Ying, AU - Tan,Kae Yi, AU - Tan,Nget Hong, AU - Tan,Choo Hock, Y1 - 2021/01/14/ PY - 2020/12/01/received PY - 2020/12/22/revised PY - 2021/01/07/accepted PY - 2021/1/20/entrez PY - 2021/1/21/pubmed PY - 2021/7/22/medline KW - Naja (Uraeus) senegalensis KW - Naja haje complex KW - antivenom neutralization KW - immunoreactivity KW - snakebite envenomation KW - venomics JF - Toxins JO - Toxins (Basel) VL - 13 IS - 1 N2 - The Senegalese cobra, Naja senegalensis, is a non-spitting cobra species newly erected from the Naja haje complex. Naja senegalensis causes neurotoxic envenomation in Western Africa but its venom properties remain underexplored. Applying a protein decomplexation proteomic approach, this study unveiled the unique complexity of the venom composition. Three-finger toxins constituted the major component, accounting for 75.91% of total venom proteins. Of these, cardiotoxin/cytotoxin (~53%) and alpha-neurotoxins (~23%) predominated in the venom proteome. Phospholipase A2, however, was not present in the venom, suggesting a unique snake venom phenotype found in this species. The venom, despite the absence of PLA2, is highly lethal with an intravenous LD50 of 0.39 µg/g in mice, consistent with the high abundance of alpha-neurotoxins (predominating long neurotoxins) in the venom. The hetero-specific VINS African Polyvalent Antivenom (VAPAV) was immunoreactive to the venom, implying conserved protein antigenicity in the venoms of N. senegalensis and N. haje. Furthermore, VAPAV was able to cross-neutralize the lethal effect of N. senegalensis venom but the potency was limited (0.59 mg venom completely neutralized per mL antivenom, or ~82 LD50 per ml of antivenom). The efficacy of antivenom should be further improved to optimize the treatment of cobra bite envenomation in Africa. SN - 2072-6651 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33466660/A_Neurotoxic_Snake_Venom_without_Phospholipase_A2:_Proteomics_and_Cross_Neutralization_of_the_Venom_from_Senegalese_Cobra_Naja_senegalensis__Subgenus:_Uraeus__ L2 - https://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=toxins13010060 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -