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Consequences of 'no-choice, fixed time' reciprocal host plant switches on nutrition and gut serine protease gene expression in Pieris brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae).
PLoS One. 2021; 16(1):e0245649.Plos

Abstract

Rapid adaptive responses were evident from reciprocal host-plant switches on performance, digestive physiology and relative gene expression of gut serine proteases in larvae of crucifer pest P. brassicae transferred from cauliflower (CF, Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, family Brassicaceae) to an alternate host, garden nasturtium, (GN, Tropaeolum majus L., family Tropaeolaceae) and vice-versa under laboratory conditions. Estimation of nutritional indices indicated that larvae of all instars tested consumed the least food and gained less weight on CF-GN diet (significant at p≤0.05) as compared to larvae feeding on CF-CF, GN-GN and GN-CF diets suggesting that the switch to GN was nutritionally less favorable for larval growth. Nevertheless, these larvae, especially fourth instars, were adroit in utilizing and digesting GN as a new host plant type. In vitro protease assays conducted to understand associated physiological responses within twelve hours indicated that levels and properties of gut proteases were significantly influenced by type of natal host-plant consumed, change in diet as well as larval age. Activities of gut trypsins and chymotrypsins in larvae feeding on CF-GN and GN-CF diets were distinct, and represented shifts toward profiles observed in larvae feeding continuously on GN-GN and CF-CF diets respectively. Results with diagnostic protease inhibitors like TLCK, STI and SBBI in these assays and gelatinolytic zymograms indicated complex and contrasting trends in gut serine protease activities in different instars from CF-GN diet versus GN-CF diet, likely due to ingestion of plant protease inhibitors present in the new diet. Cloning and sequencing of serine protease gene fragments expressed in gut tissues of fourth instar P. brassicae revealed diverse transcripts encoding putative trypsins and chymotrypsins belonging to at least ten lineages. Sequences of members of each lineage closely resembled lepidopteran serine protease orthologs including uncharacterized transcripts from Pieris rapae. Differential regulation of serine protease genes (Pbr1-Pbr5) was observed in larval guts of P. brassicae from CF-CF and GN-GN diets while expression of transcripts encoding two putative trypsins (Pbr3 and Pbr5) were significantly different in larvae from CF-GN and GN-CF diets. These results suggested that some gut serine proteases that were differentially expressed in larvae feeding on different species of host plants were also involved in rapid adaptations to dietary switches. A gene encoding nitrile-specifier protein (nsp) likely involved in detoxification of toxic products from interactions of ingested host plant glucosinolates with myrosinases was expressed to similar levels in these larvae. Taken together, these snapshots reflected contrasts in physiological and developmental plasticity of P. brassicae larvae to nutritional challenges from wide dietary switches in the short term and the prominent role of gut serine proteases in rapid dietary adaptations. This study may be useful in designing novel management strategies targeting candidate gut serine proteases of P. brassicae using RNA interference, gene editing or crops with transgenes encoding protease inhibitors from taxonomically-distant host plants.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Faculty of Science, Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi, India.Faculty of Science, Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi, India.Faculty of Science, Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi, India.Faculty of Science, Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi, India.Faculty of Science, Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi, India.Faculty of Science, Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi, India.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33471847

Citation

Kumar, Pawan, et al. "Consequences of 'no-choice, Fixed Time' Reciprocal Host Plant Switches On Nutrition and Gut Serine Protease Gene Expression in Pieris Brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)." PloS One, vol. 16, no. 1, 2021, pp. e0245649.
Kumar P, Akhter T, Bhardwaj P, et al. Consequences of 'no-choice, fixed time' reciprocal host plant switches on nutrition and gut serine protease gene expression in Pieris brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). PLoS One. 2021;16(1):e0245649.
Kumar, P., Akhter, T., Bhardwaj, P., Kumar, R., Bhardwaj, U., & Mazumdar-Leighton, S. (2021). Consequences of 'no-choice, fixed time' reciprocal host plant switches on nutrition and gut serine protease gene expression in Pieris brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). PloS One, 16(1), e0245649. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0245649
Kumar P, et al. Consequences of 'no-choice, Fixed Time' Reciprocal Host Plant Switches On Nutrition and Gut Serine Protease Gene Expression in Pieris Brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). PLoS One. 2021;16(1):e0245649. PubMed PMID: 33471847.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Consequences of 'no-choice, fixed time' reciprocal host plant switches on nutrition and gut serine protease gene expression in Pieris brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). AU - Kumar,Pawan, AU - Akhter,Tabasum, AU - Bhardwaj,Parul, AU - Kumar,Rakesh, AU - Bhardwaj,Usha, AU - Mazumdar-Leighton,Sudeshna, Y1 - 2021/01/20/ PY - 2020/02/06/received PY - 2021/01/06/accepted PY - 2021/1/20/entrez PY - 2021/1/21/pubmed PY - 2021/6/16/medline SP - e0245649 EP - e0245649 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS One VL - 16 IS - 1 N2 - Rapid adaptive responses were evident from reciprocal host-plant switches on performance, digestive physiology and relative gene expression of gut serine proteases in larvae of crucifer pest P. brassicae transferred from cauliflower (CF, Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, family Brassicaceae) to an alternate host, garden nasturtium, (GN, Tropaeolum majus L., family Tropaeolaceae) and vice-versa under laboratory conditions. Estimation of nutritional indices indicated that larvae of all instars tested consumed the least food and gained less weight on CF-GN diet (significant at p≤0.05) as compared to larvae feeding on CF-CF, GN-GN and GN-CF diets suggesting that the switch to GN was nutritionally less favorable for larval growth. Nevertheless, these larvae, especially fourth instars, were adroit in utilizing and digesting GN as a new host plant type. In vitro protease assays conducted to understand associated physiological responses within twelve hours indicated that levels and properties of gut proteases were significantly influenced by type of natal host-plant consumed, change in diet as well as larval age. Activities of gut trypsins and chymotrypsins in larvae feeding on CF-GN and GN-CF diets were distinct, and represented shifts toward profiles observed in larvae feeding continuously on GN-GN and CF-CF diets respectively. Results with diagnostic protease inhibitors like TLCK, STI and SBBI in these assays and gelatinolytic zymograms indicated complex and contrasting trends in gut serine protease activities in different instars from CF-GN diet versus GN-CF diet, likely due to ingestion of plant protease inhibitors present in the new diet. Cloning and sequencing of serine protease gene fragments expressed in gut tissues of fourth instar P. brassicae revealed diverse transcripts encoding putative trypsins and chymotrypsins belonging to at least ten lineages. Sequences of members of each lineage closely resembled lepidopteran serine protease orthologs including uncharacterized transcripts from Pieris rapae. Differential regulation of serine protease genes (Pbr1-Pbr5) was observed in larval guts of P. brassicae from CF-CF and GN-GN diets while expression of transcripts encoding two putative trypsins (Pbr3 and Pbr5) were significantly different in larvae from CF-GN and GN-CF diets. These results suggested that some gut serine proteases that were differentially expressed in larvae feeding on different species of host plants were also involved in rapid adaptations to dietary switches. A gene encoding nitrile-specifier protein (nsp) likely involved in detoxification of toxic products from interactions of ingested host plant glucosinolates with myrosinases was expressed to similar levels in these larvae. Taken together, these snapshots reflected contrasts in physiological and developmental plasticity of P. brassicae larvae to nutritional challenges from wide dietary switches in the short term and the prominent role of gut serine proteases in rapid dietary adaptations. This study may be useful in designing novel management strategies targeting candidate gut serine proteases of P. brassicae using RNA interference, gene editing or crops with transgenes encoding protease inhibitors from taxonomically-distant host plants. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33471847/Consequences_of_'no_choice_fixed_time'_reciprocal_host_plant_switches_on_nutrition_and_gut_serine_protease_gene_expression_in_Pieris_brassicae_L___Lepidoptera:_Pieridae__ L2 - https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0245649 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -