Evaluation of the effect of silver and silver nanoparticles on the function of selenoproteins using an in-vitro model of the fish intestine: The cell line RTgutGC.Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2021 Mar 15; 211:111930.EE
Emerging research in mammalian cells suggests that ionic (AgNO3) and nano silver (AgNP) can disrupt the metabolism of selenium which plays a vital role in oxidative stress control. However, the effect of silver (Ag) on selenoprotein function in fish is poorly understood. Here we evaluate the effects of AgNO3 and citrate coated AgNP (cit-AgNP) on selenoprotein function and oxidative stress using a fish cell line derived from the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) intestine (RTgutGC). Cell viability was evaluated using a cytotoxicity assay which measures simultaneously metabolic activity, membrane integrity and lysosome integrity. Cells exposed to equimolar amounts of AgNO3 and cit-AgNP accumulated the same amount of silver intracellularly, however AgNO3 was more toxic than cit-AgNP. Selenoenzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) mRNA levels and enzyme activity were measured. While mRNA levels remained unaffected by AgNO3 or cit-AgNP, the enzyme activity of GPx was inhibited by AgNO3 (1 µM) and cit-AgNP (5 µM) and TrxR activity was inhibited by AgNO3 (0.4 µM) and cit-AgNP (1, 5 µM). Moreover, cells exposed to 1 µM of AgNO3 and cit-AgNP showed an increase in metallothionein b (MTb) mRNA levels at 24 h of exposure, confirming the uptake of silver, but returned to control levels at 72 h suggesting silver scavenging by MTb. Oxidative stress was not observed at any of the doses of AgNO3 or cit-AgNP tested. Overall, this study shows that AgNO3 or cit-AgNP can inhibit the activity of selenoenzymes but do not induce oxidative stress in RTgutGC cells.