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Swimming exercise improves gene expression of PPAR-γ and downregulates the overexpression of TLR4, MyD88, IL-6, and TNF-α after high-fat diet in rat skeletal muscle cells.
Gene. 2021 Apr 05; 775:145441.GENE

Abstract

Exercise training with anti-inflammatory effects can improve insulin sensitivity in muscle tissue. This study investigated the effects of eight-week swimming exercises on lipid profile, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) in gastrocnemius muscle of rats fed with high-fat diet (HFD). Thirty-two healthy male Wistar rats (8 weeks, 200 ± 20 g) were randomly divided into four groups (n = 8 each group): the control (C), aerobic exercise (E), HFD, and HFD + aerobic exercise (HFD & E). The exercise training protocol consisted of swimming 60 min/day, 5 days/week for eight weeks. Serum levels of glucose, insulin, and lipid profile were measured at end of the study. Protein expressions of TLR4, TNF-α, and IL-6 were determined by immunohistochemical method. Gene expression of TLR4/MyD88, TNF-α, IL-6, and PPAR-γ was evaluated by a real-time polymerase chain reaction in gastrocnemius muscle. HFD fed rats showed higher levels of cholesterol and LDL-c that were similar in weight gain. Meanwhile, the HFD group had a higher gene expression of TLR4, MyD88, TNF-α, IL-6, and lower gene expression of PPAR-γ compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Muscle protein expression of TLR4, TNF-α, IL-6 was lower in the E and HFD&E groups (especially when compared to HFD group, P < 0.05). We also showed a decrease in TLR4/MyD88 mRNA and an increase in PPAR-γ mRNA in gastrocnemius of E and HFD&E groups (compared to HFD group, p < 0.05). Insulin resistance in HFD&E groups show a significant decrease compared to the HFD group (p < 0.05). It seems that swimming aerobic exercise for eight weeks controlled the destructive effects of HFD on muscle inflammatory pathways along with the down-regulation of the TLR4/MyD88, inflammatory cytokine, and up-regulation PPAR-γ mRNA. It appears that the down-regulation in the expression of TLR4/MyD88 mRNA reduces the muscle pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and TNF-α, whose action may be caused by the adaptation of swimming aerobic exercise (an increase of PPAR-γ). Therefore, local and systemic inflammatory changes due to HFD and obesity may be affected by metabolic adaptations of aerobic exercise training, which requires further studies.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Exercise Physiology Research Center, Life Style Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address: shirvani@bmsu.ac.ir.Molecular Biology Research Center, Systems Biology and Poisonings Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.Exercise Physiology Research Center, Life Style Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.Exercise Physiology Research Center, Life Style Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33482280

Citation

Shirvani, Hossein, et al. "Swimming Exercise Improves Gene Expression of PPAR-γ and Downregulates the Overexpression of TLR4, MyD88, IL-6, and TNF-α After High-fat Diet in Rat Skeletal Muscle Cells." Gene, vol. 775, 2021, p. 145441.
Shirvani H, Mirnejad R, Soleimani M, et al. Swimming exercise improves gene expression of PPAR-γ and downregulates the overexpression of TLR4, MyD88, IL-6, and TNF-α after high-fat diet in rat skeletal muscle cells. Gene. 2021;775:145441.
Shirvani, H., Mirnejad, R., Soleimani, M., & Arabzadeh, E. (2021). Swimming exercise improves gene expression of PPAR-γ and downregulates the overexpression of TLR4, MyD88, IL-6, and TNF-α after high-fat diet in rat skeletal muscle cells. Gene, 775, 145441. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2021.145441
Shirvani H, et al. Swimming Exercise Improves Gene Expression of PPAR-γ and Downregulates the Overexpression of TLR4, MyD88, IL-6, and TNF-α After High-fat Diet in Rat Skeletal Muscle Cells. Gene. 2021 Apr 5;775:145441. PubMed PMID: 33482280.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Swimming exercise improves gene expression of PPAR-γ and downregulates the overexpression of TLR4, MyD88, IL-6, and TNF-α after high-fat diet in rat skeletal muscle cells. AU - Shirvani,Hossein, AU - Mirnejad,Reza, AU - Soleimani,Mehdi, AU - Arabzadeh,Ehsan, Y1 - 2021/01/19/ PY - 2020/09/27/received PY - 2020/12/26/revised PY - 2021/01/13/accepted PY - 2021/1/23/pubmed PY - 2021/1/23/medline PY - 2021/1/22/entrez KW - Aerobic exercise KW - High fat diet KW - MyD88 KW - PPAR-γ KW - Toll-like receptor 4 SP - 145441 EP - 145441 JF - Gene JO - Gene VL - 775 N2 - Exercise training with anti-inflammatory effects can improve insulin sensitivity in muscle tissue. This study investigated the effects of eight-week swimming exercises on lipid profile, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) in gastrocnemius muscle of rats fed with high-fat diet (HFD). Thirty-two healthy male Wistar rats (8 weeks, 200 ± 20 g) were randomly divided into four groups (n = 8 each group): the control (C), aerobic exercise (E), HFD, and HFD + aerobic exercise (HFD & E). The exercise training protocol consisted of swimming 60 min/day, 5 days/week for eight weeks. Serum levels of glucose, insulin, and lipid profile were measured at end of the study. Protein expressions of TLR4, TNF-α, and IL-6 were determined by immunohistochemical method. Gene expression of TLR4/MyD88, TNF-α, IL-6, and PPAR-γ was evaluated by a real-time polymerase chain reaction in gastrocnemius muscle. HFD fed rats showed higher levels of cholesterol and LDL-c that were similar in weight gain. Meanwhile, the HFD group had a higher gene expression of TLR4, MyD88, TNF-α, IL-6, and lower gene expression of PPAR-γ compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Muscle protein expression of TLR4, TNF-α, IL-6 was lower in the E and HFD&E groups (especially when compared to HFD group, P < 0.05). We also showed a decrease in TLR4/MyD88 mRNA and an increase in PPAR-γ mRNA in gastrocnemius of E and HFD&E groups (compared to HFD group, p < 0.05). Insulin resistance in HFD&E groups show a significant decrease compared to the HFD group (p < 0.05). It seems that swimming aerobic exercise for eight weeks controlled the destructive effects of HFD on muscle inflammatory pathways along with the down-regulation of the TLR4/MyD88, inflammatory cytokine, and up-regulation PPAR-γ mRNA. It appears that the down-regulation in the expression of TLR4/MyD88 mRNA reduces the muscle pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and TNF-α, whose action may be caused by the adaptation of swimming aerobic exercise (an increase of PPAR-γ). Therefore, local and systemic inflammatory changes due to HFD and obesity may be affected by metabolic adaptations of aerobic exercise training, which requires further studies. SN - 1879-0038 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33482280/Swimming_exercise_improves_gene_expression_of_PPAR_γ_and_downregulates_the_overexpression_of_TLR4_MyD88_IL_6_and_TNF_α_after_high_fat_diet_in_rat_skeletal_muscle_cells_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0378-1119(21)00035-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -