Parkinson's Disease: Potential Actions of Lithium by Targeting the WNT/β-Catenin Pathway, Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Glutamatergic Pathway.Cells. 2021 01 25; 10(2)C
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the major neurodegenerative diseases (ND) which presents a progressive neurodegeneration characterized by loss of dopamine in the substantia nigra pars compacta. It is well known that oxidative stress, inflammation and glutamatergic pathway play key roles in the development of PD. However, therapies remain uncertain and research for new treatment is mandatory. This review focuses on the potential effects of lithium, as a potential therapeutic strategy, on PD and some of the presumed mechanisms by which lithium provides its benefit properties. Lithium medication downregulates GSK-3beta, the main inhibitor of the WNT/β-catenin pathway. The stimulation of the WNT/β-catenin could be associated with the control of oxidative stress, inflammation, and glutamatergic pathway. Future prospective clinical trials could focus on lithium and its different and multiple interactions in PD.